“Scientists estimate that more than 40 percent of the excess CO2 that has accumulated in our atmosphere has come from deforestation in past centuries.”

Living Systems

Chapter Nine

Forests

p. 172 an estimated 20 to 23 percent of annual CO2 emissions
K.L. Denman, G. Brasseur, A. Chidthaisong, P. Ciais, P.M. Cox, R.E. Dickinson, D. Hauglustaine, et al., “2007: Couplings Between Changes in the Climate System and Biogeochemistry,” Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA): 512. Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_wg1_report_the_physical_science_basis.htm

Navin Ramankutty, Holly K. Gibbs, Frédéric Achard, Ruth Defriess, Jonathan A. Foley, and R. A. Houghton, “Challenges to estimating carbon emissions from tropical deforestsation,” Global Change Biology 13 (2007): 51-66. Available at http://www.whrc.org/resources/published_literature/pdf/RamankuttyetalGCB.07.pdf

Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) version 6.0. (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, 2009). Available at http://cait.wri.org
p. 172 more than that from all the cars and trucks in the world
Kevin A. Baumert, Timothy Herzog, and Jonathan Pershing, Navigating the Numbers: Greenhouse Gas Data and International Climate Policy (World Resources Institute, 2005). Available at http://www.wri.org/publication/navigating-the-numbers.
p. 172 Norman Myers... recently estimated that
Jeremy Hance, “Tropical deforestation is 'one of the worst crises since we came out of our caves',” MongaBay.com, May 15, 2008. Available at http://news.mongabay.com/2008/0515-hance_myers.html.
p. 172 there has been a large influx of impoverished migrants engaging in the practice – particularly in the Brazilian Amazon and in the African Congo Basin
Jeremy Hance, “Tropical deforestation is 'one of the worst crises since we came out of our caves',” MongaBay.com, May 15, 2008. Available at http://news.mongabay.com/2008/0515-hance_myers.html.
p. 172 more than 34 million acres per year
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, “FRA 2005 – key findings,” last updated November 27, 2006. Available at http://www.fao.org/forestry/32246/en/
p. 172 the net loss of forests each year amounts to 18 million acres
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, “FRA 2005 – key findings,” last updated November 27, 2006. Available at http://www.fao.org/forestry/32246/en/
p. 173 the third and fourth nations on the list are Indonesia and Brazil
PEACE, Indonesia and Climate Change: Current Status and Policies (2007). Available at http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTINDONESIA/Resources/Environment/ClimateChange_Full_EN.pdf
p. 173 more than 60 percent of all deforestation in the world today
Fred Stolle, “Groundbreaking Study Finds the 'Hotspots' Most Responsible for Deforestation” (World Resources Institute), July 16, 2008. Available at http://www.wri.org/stories/2008/07/groundbreaking-study-finds-hotspots-most-responsible-deforestation
p. 173 and is concentrated in the state of Mato Grosso in the Amazon and in Riau Province and adjacent areas in Indonesia
Stephen Adam, Susan Minnemeyer, Matthew Hansen, Peter Potapov, and Kyle Pittman, Painting the Global Picture of Tree Cover Change: Tree Cover Loss in the Humid Tropics (World Resources Institute, May 2007). Available at http://www.wri.org/publication/painting-the-global-picture-of-tree-cover-change
p. 173 The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization... notes that in recent years
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, State of the World's Forests 2009 (FAO, 2009): 109-115. Available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/011/i0350e/i0350e00.htm
p. 174 In Asia and Latin America, the single largest cause of deforestation is conversion of forestland
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, State of the World's Forests 2009 (FAO, 2009): 15, 35. Available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/011/i0350e/i0350e00.htm
p. 174 In Africa, the largest cause is the conversion of forestland
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, State of the World's Forests 2009 (FAO, 2009): 4-5. Available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/011/i0350e/i0350e00.htm
p. 174 Brazil... is responsible for 48 percent of all deforestation in the world
Fred Stolle, “Groundbreaking Study Finds the 'Hotspots' Most Responsible for Deforestation,” (World Resources Institute) July 16, 2008. Available at http://www.wri.org/stories/2008/07/groundbreaking-study-finds-hotspots-most-responsible-deforestation
p. 174 Almost 20 percent of the Amazon forest has already been destroyed
“Brazil admits Amazon deforestation on the rise,” Associated Press, August 30, 2008. Available at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/26472726
p. 174 The official Brazilian government figure is 17 percent
Jens Glüsing, “Can new growth save the Amazon rainforest?,” Salon, August 17, 2009. Available at http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2009/08/17/rainforest_recovery/index.html
p. 174 According to a recent report by Greenpeace
Rhett A. Butler, “Beef drives 80% of Amazon deforestation,” MongaBay.com, January 29, 2009. Available at http://news.mongabay.com/2009/0129-brazil.html

Greenpeace, Amazon Cattle Footprint: Mato Grosso: State of Destruction (Greenpeace Brazil 2009). Available at http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/international/press/reports/amazon-cattle-footprint-mato.pdf

Note:
The quote comes from an article describing the findings of the Greenpeace study. The original quote, from Mongabay.com, reads: “Nearly 80 percent of land deforested in the Amazon from 1996-2006 is now used for cattle pasture, according to a report released today by Greenpeace at the World Social Forum in Belem, Brazil.”
p. 174 Brazil has announced a national target of reducing deforestation by 70 percent by 2017
Joshua Partlow, “Brazil's Decision on Deforestation Draws Praise,” The Washington Post, December 6, 2008. Available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/12/05/AR2008120503325.html
p. 174 announced the creation of a fund and a set of new regulations
“Brazil launches rainforest fund,” BBC News, August 1, 2008. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7538480.stm
p. 174 Carlos Minc... acknowledged the failure
“Brazil admits Amazon deforestation on the rise,” Associated Press, August 30, 2008. Available at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/26472726
p. 174 while Brazil is destroying twice as much forestland... Indonesia is emitting twice as much CO2
PEACE, Indonesia and Climate Change: Current Status and Policies (2007). Available at http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTINDONESIA/Resources/Environment/ClimateChange_Full_EN.pdf
p. 174 Top 10 Deforesting Nations [Graphic]
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, State of the World's Forests 2009 (FAO, 2009): 109-115. Available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/011/i0350e/i0350e00.htm
p. 175 More than 80 percent of the world's palm oil comes from Indonesia and its next-door neighbor Malaysia
Gregore Pio Lopez and Tara Laan, Government Support for Biodiesel in Malaysia (The Global Subsidies Initiative, September 2008): 16. Available at http://www.globalsubsidies.org/files/assets/Final_Malaysia_2.pdf
p. 175 massive clouds of smoke and soot now cover large portions of the Southeast Asian archipelago
Gretchen Cook-Anderson, “NASA Study Says Climate Adds Fuel to Asian Wildfire Emissions,” NASA, April 30, 2009. Available at http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/asian_fires.html
p. 175 Indonesia's official policy calls for the tripling of palm oil plantations by 2020
Ian MacKinnon, “Palm oil: the biofuel of the future driving an ecological disaster now,” The Guardian, April 4, 2007. Available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2007/apr/04/energy.indonesia
p. 175 Willie Smits, a conservationist living in Borneo
Ian MacKinnon, “Palm oil: the biofuel of the future driving an ecological disaster now,” The Guardian, April 4, 2007. Available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2007/apr/04/energy.indonesia
p. 175 the clearing and burning of the forests where the trees are grown contributes far more CO2 to the atmosphere than is ever reabsorbed
Gregore Pio Lopez and Tara Laan, Government Support for Biodiesel in Malaysia (The Global Subsidies Initiative, September 2008): 58-9. Available at http://www.globalsubsidies.org/files/assets/Final_Malaysia_2.pdf
p. 175 Indonesia has passed a law subsidizing the use of palm oil in Indonesian cars
Gregore Pio Lopez and Tara Laan, Government Support for Biodiesel in Malaysia (The Global Subsidies Initiative, September 2008). Available at http://www.globalsubsidies.org/files/assets/Final_Malaysia_2.pdf
p. 175 most palm oil from both Indonesia and Malaysia is exported
Gregore Pio Lopez and Tara Laan, Government Support for Biodiesel in Malaysia (The Global Subsidies Initiative, September 2008). Available at http://www.globalsubsidies.org/files/assets/Final_Malaysia_2.pdf
p. 175 a U.S. tax incentive... was a significant contributing factor... believed to be an environmental benefit
Gregore Pio Lopez and Tara Laan, Government Support for Biodiesel in Malaysia (The Global Subsidies Initiative, September 2008). Available at http://www.globalsubsidies.org/files/assets/Final_Malaysia_2.pdf
p. 175 Lawmakers in the United States were successful in 2009 in closing the U.S. tax loophole
Anna Austin, “Industry welcomes tax credit extension,” Biodiesel Magazine, December 2008. Available at http://www.biodieselmagazine.com/article.jsp?article_id=2946

Note:
The loophole was closed at the end of 2008.
p. 180 two years later, Smits founded
Hillary Mayell, “Orangutans Edging Closer to Brink of Extinction,” National Geographic News, October 24, 2000. Available at
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2000/12/122800orangutans.html
p. 180 deforestation is also a primary reason
Willie Smits, “Willie Smits Restores a Rainforest,” TED Conference, February 2009. Available at http://www.ted.com/talks/willie_smits_restores_a_rainforest.html
p. 180 Increased temperatures and decreased or irregular rainfall
Wolfgang Cramer, et al., Tropical forests and the global carbon cycle: impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide, climate change and rate of deforestation, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 2004 Mar 29;359(1443):331-43. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=15212088
p. 181 scientists estimate that more than 40 percent... has come from deforestation in past centuries... not until the 1970s that fossil fuel use overtook deforestation
Rattan Lal, et al., “Soil Carbon Sequestration Impacts on Global Climate Change and Food Security,” Science 304 (2004): 1623-1627.

Ian R. Swingland (ed.), Capturing Carbon & Conserving Biodiversity: The Market Approach (London: Earthscan Publications Ltd, 2002): 26.
p. 181 The total forested area on the surface of the earth is roughly nine billion acres
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005 (FAO, 2005): xii. Available at http://www.fao.org/forestry/fra/fra2005/en/
p. 181 According to the World Resources Institute study
World Resources Institute, “Protecting Forests to Save the Climate: REDD Challenges and Opportunities,” EarthTrends (April 2008). Available at http://earthtrends.wri.org/updates/node/303
p. 181 The largest areas of forest are found in
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005 (FAO, 2005): xii-xiii. Available at http://www.fao.org/forestry/fra/fra2005/en/
p. 181 One third of all the remaining forests are still “primary forests”
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005 (FAO, 2005): xiii. Available at http://www.fao.org/forestry/fra/fra2005/en/
p. 181 According to the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization... non-wood products
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005 (FAO, 2005): xviii. Available at http://www.fao.org/forestry/fra/fra2005/en/

Both sentences came from the U.N. report, though the text ends the quote after the first sentence. Additionally, since the second sentence appears a few paragraphs after the first sentence in the report, an ellipsis should appear between the two sentences.

The corrected paragraph should read:
According to the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization, "Eighty-four percent of the world's forests are publicly owned, but private ownership is on the rise... One third of the world's forests are used primarily for production of wood and non-wood forest products."
p. 184 have a much higher density of carbon than any other ecosystem
Robert T. Watson, Ian R. Noble, Bert Bolin, N.H. Ravindranath, David J. Verardo, and David J. Dokken, IPCC Special Report on Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (IPCC, 2000): Section 1.2.1.2. Available at http://www.grida.no/publications/other/ipcc%5Fsr/?src=/climate/ipcc/land_use/019.htm

Note:
The figures in the text only apply to the carbon in the vegetation, not the total amount of carbon in the vegetation and soils.
p. 184 Rain forests represent a special case
United Nations Environment Programme, “Fast Facts,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.unep.org/billiontreecampaign/FactsFigures/FastFacts/index.asp
p. 184 virtually all of the nutrient content in many rain forests is contained
Rebecca Lindsey, “Tropical Deforestation,” NASA Earth Observatory, March 30, 2007. Available at http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Deforestation/
p. 184 An estimated 50 to 90 percent of all species on Earth are found in forests
Walter V. Reid and Kenton R. Miller, “Tropical forest species richness,” Keeping Options Alive: The Scientific Basis for the Conservation of Biodiversity (World Resources Institute, October 1989). Available at http://www.wri.org/publication/content/8190
p. 184 Among the best-known species now at risk of disappearing are
Ian MacKinnon, “Palm oil: the biofuel of the future driving an ecological disaster now,” The Guardian, April 4, 2007. Available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2007/apr/04/energy.indonesia
p. 184 Norman Myers said in a speech at an Asia-Pacific forestry conference in Vietnam last year
Jeremy Hance, “Tropical deforestation is 'one of the worst crises since we came out of our caves',” MongaBay.com, May 15, 2008. Available at http://news.mongabay.com/2008/0515-hance_myers.html
p. 184 Three of the previous five extinctions occured... 450 million years ago
David M. Raup and J. John Sepkoski, “Mass Extinctions in the Marine Fossil Record,” Science 215, no. 4539 (March 19, 1982): 1501-1503.

David M. Raup, “Biological Extinction in Earth History,” Science 231, no. 4745 (March 28, 1986): 1528-1533.

L.H. Tanner, S.G. Lucas, and M.G. Chapman, “Assessing the record and causes of Late Triassic extinctions,” Earth-Science Reviews 65 (2004): 103-139.

Rosalind V. White, “Earth's biggest 'whodunnit': unravelling the clues in the case of the end-Permian mass extinction,” Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society of London A 360 (2002): 2963-2985. Available at http://www.le.ac.uk/gl/ads/SiberianTraps/Documents/White2002-P-Tr-whodunit.pdf
p. 185 The Role of Forests in the Carbon Cycle [Graphic]
Joyce Diwan, “Calvin Cycle: Photosynthetic Carbon Reactions,” Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.rpi.edu/dept/bcbp/molbiochem/MBWeb/mb2/part1/dark.htm
p. 186 The Sixth Great Extinction [Sidebar]
David M. Raup and J. John Sepkoski, “Mass Extinctions in the Marine Fossil Record,” Science 215, no. 4539 (March 19, 1982): 1501-1503.

Note:
John Sepkoski's name is misspelled in the source attribution for the graphic.
p. 186 The distinguished biologist E.O. Wilson said in 1986
Richard Leakey and Roger Lewin, The Sixth Extinction: Patterns of Life and the Future of Humankind (Anchor Books, 1995): 235.
p. 186 Tom Lovejoy, one of the leading experts on biodiversity, has said
Richard Leakey and Roger Lewin, The Sixth Extinction: Patterns of Life and the Future of Humankind (Anchor Books, 1995): 241.
p. 187 Larry Linden... offers the following example
Lawrence Linden, presentation to Solutions Summit, April 30â May 1, 2008.
p. 187 Larry Schweiger... uses the illustrative example of white oaks
Larry Schweiger, interview with author, 2008.

Schweiger, Larry, Last Chance: Preserving Life on Earth (Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing, 2009).
p. 187 Carbon Uptake in Trees [Graphic]
Börje Kyrklund, “The potential of forests and forest industry in reducing excess atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Unasylva no. 163 (1990). Available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/u0700E/u0700e04.htm
p. 188 in a massive study in 2009 by the International Union of Forest Research Organizations
Risto Seppälä, Alexander Buck, and Pia Katila (eds.), Adaptation of Forests and People to Climate Change: A Global Assessment Report (IUFRO, World Series Volume 22, 2009): 10. Available at http://www.iufro.org/publications/series/world-series/worldseries-22/

Note:
The quote “Several projects indicate significant risks” should read “Several projections indicate significant risks.”
p. 188 a study by the Canadian Forest Service
“Carbon emissions/removals in Canada's managed forests,” Natural Resources Canada, last updated October 14, 2009. Available at http://canadaforests.nrcan.gc.ca/indicator/carbonemissions
p. 188 which have already destroyed more than 30 million acres of mature forests
“Carbon emissions/removals in Canada's managed forests,” Natural Resources Canada, last updated October 14, 2009. Available at http://canadaforests.nrcan.gc.ca/indicator/carbonemissions
p. 188 seven million acres have already been affected
Charles J. Hanley, “Twin plagues: Beetles and fire devour forests,” Associated Press, August 31, 2009. Available at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/32491808

Kirk Johnson, “Beetles Add New Dynamic to Forest Fire Control Efforts,” The New York Times, June 27. 2009. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/28/us/28wildfires.html
p. 188 a historic assault from bark beetles and pine beetles
Ivar Ekman, “Global warming blamed for Swedish beetle-infestation,” The New York Times, May 2, 2007. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/02/world/europe/02iht-beetle.4.5536234.html
p. 188 The U.S. Geological Survey found in January
Phillip J. van Mantgem, Nathan L. Stephenson, John C. Byrne, Lore D. Daniels, Jerry F. Franklin, Peter Z. Fulé, Mark E. Harmon, Andrew J. Larson, Jeremy M. Smith, Alan H. Taylor, and Thomas T. Veblen, “Widespread Increase of Tree Mortality Rates in the Western United States,” Science 323, no. 5913: 521-524. Available at http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/323/5913/521
p. 188 Independent research at the University of Arizona at the Biosphere 2 facility has confirmed
Henry D. Adams, Maite Guardiola-Claramonte, Greg A. Barron-Gafford, Juan Camilo Villegas, David D. Breshears, Chris B. Zou, Peter A. Troch, and Travis E. Huxman, “Temperature sensitivity of drought-induced tree mortality portends increased regional die-off under global change-type drought,” PNAS 106, no. 17 (April 28. 2009): 7063-7066. Available at http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2009/04/13/0901438106.abstract
p. 188 A team of researchers led by A.L. Westerling
A.L. Westerling, H.G. Hidalgo, D.R. Cayan, and T.W. Swetnam, “Warming and Earlier Spring Increase Western U.S. Forest Wildfire Activity,” Science 313, no. 5789: 940-943. Available at http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/313/5789/940
p. 188 researchers at the University of Tel Aviv found compelling evidence
Colin Price, email correspondence with author, July 3, 2008.
p. 189 most cannot unless other inputs... are also increased
“Higher Carbon Dioxide, Lack of Nitrogen Limit Plant Growth,” Science Daily, April 13, 2006. Available at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/04/060412204831.htm

Peter B. Reich, Sarah E. Hobbie, Tali Lee, David S. Ellsworth, Jason B. West, David Tilman, Johannes M. H. Knops, Shahid Naeem, and Jared Trost, “Nitrogen limitation constrains sustainability of ecosystem response to CO2,” Nature 440 (April 13, 2006): 922-925.
p. 189 more than 600,000 acres of forest
Jason Blevins, “Beetle kill gives industry new life,” The Denver Post, November 15, 2007. Available at http://www.denverpost.com/ci_7464882
p. 189 new research indicates that increases in average soil temperature can damage soil fertility
Rattan Lal, interview with author, July 2, 2009.
p. 189 Europe and North America have long been restoring their net forest cover
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, State of the World's Forests 2009 (FAO, 2009): 109-115. Available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/011/i0350e/i0350e00.htm
p. 190 by seeding clouds with bacteria... Brent Christner... led a team that recently found
Brandon Keim, “Airborne Bacteria Make It Rain, Researchers Find,” Wired, February 29, 2008. Available at http://www.wired.com/print/science/planetearth/news/2008/02/bacteria_clouds
p. 191 Tom Lovejoy, one of the world's experts on the Amazon, says
Thomas Lovejoy, “Rainforests: A Paradise on Earth,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.biomesonline.com/perspectives/tlovejoy.html
p. 191 The Keeling Curve [Sidebar]
Scripps CO2 Program, “The Early Keeling Curve,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://scrippsCO2.ucsd.edu/program_history/early_keeling_curve.html
p. 192 The Kyoto Protocol of 1997... in Article 3.3
Robert T. Watson, Ian R. Noble, Bert Bolin, N.H. Ravindranath, David J. Verardo, and David J. Dokken, IPCC Special Report on Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (IPCC 2000): Section 3.1. Available at http://www.grida.no/publications/other/ipcc%5Fsr/?src=/climate/ipcc/land_use/122.htm
p. 192 It is now possible to establish highly accurate “national baselines”
UN FAO, “FAO calls on countries to report on forests,” press release, March 6, 2008. Available at http://www.fao.org/newsroom/EN/news/2008/1000804/index.html
p. 192 the Forests Dialogue, was formed in 1999 by the
The Forests Dialogue, “The Forests Dialogue,” November, 2007. Available at http://research.yale.edu/gisf/tfd/TFD_Summary_11.07.pdf
p. 192 the lack of clear property rights for indigenous people and longtime residents
Rhett Butler, “Deforestation in the Amazon,” MongaBay.com, last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.mongabay.com/brazil.html
p. 194 China leads the world in tree planting
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, State of the World's Forests 2009 (FAO, 2009): 109-115. Available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/011/i0350e/i0350e00.htm
p. 194 among its recent African land purchases are 6.9 million acres
Leigh Phillips, “Europe's Overseas Push Into Biofuels,” Business Week, May 13, 2009. Available at http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/may2009/gb20090513_196796.htm?chan=globalbiz_europe+index+page_top+stories
p. 194 in 1981, the National People's Congress declared that
“China's Hu takes part in tree planting,” UPI, April 5, 2009. Available at http://www.upi.com/Top_News/2009/04/05/Chinas-Hu-takes-part-in-tree-planting/UPI-96471238948929/
p. 194 The Chinese people planted 11.7 million acres of forests
“China to make 20% of land green-covered by 2010,” China Daily, March 11, 2009. Available at http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2009-03/11/content_7570009.htm
p. 194 The nation announced last year that it will spend almost $9 billion
“China to make 20% of land green-covered by 2010,” China Daily, March 11, 2009. Available at http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2009-03/11/content_7570009.htm
p. 194 Professor Wangari Maathai, Nobel Peace Prize laureate for 2004 and founder of the Green Belt Movement in Kenya
Jan Cottingham, “30 Million Trees and Counting,” World Ark, December 15, 2005. Available at http://www.greenbeltmovement.org/a.php?id=139

United Nations Environment Programme, “UN's Billion Tree Campaign Hits its Seven Billion Goal Target,” September 21, 2009. Available at http://www.greenbeltmovement.org/a.php?id=422

Note:
The text notes that three billion trees have been planted, but since the book went to press, UNEP announced that they have surpassed the goal of seven billion trees.
p. 194 the next-largest tree-planting programs are
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, State of the World's Forests 2009 (FAO, 2009): 109-115. Available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/011/i0350e/i0350e00.htm
p. 194 Brazil proposed a program to pay small farmers to plant new trees
Stuart Grudgings and Brian Ellsworth, “Brazil to pay Amazon small farmers to plant trees,” Reuters, June 19, 2009. Available at http://www.reuters.com/article/latestCrisis/idUSN19467530
p. 194 The World Agroforestry Center recommends
Rachel Rumley and Chin Ong, “The Right Tree for a Dry Place,” Tree Water Use: Synthesis 1 (World Agroforestry Center), last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.worldagroforestry.org/water/downloads/Synthesis%20Publications/the%20right%20tree.pdf

United Nations Environment Programme, “Fast Facts,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.unep.org/billiontreecampaign/FactsFigures/FastFacts/index.asp
p. 194 If every person on Earth planted and cared for at least two tree seedlings each year
United Nations Environment Programme, “Fast Facts,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.unep.org/billiontreecampaign/FactsFigures/FastFacts/index.asp