“Nuclear power could be one option for reducing carbon emissions. At present, however, this is unlikely: nuclear power faces stagnation and decline.” — M.I.T.

Our Sources Of Energy

Chapter Eight

The Nuclear Option

p. 152 The Atomic Energy Commission predicted at the end of the 1960s
Larry Parker and Mark Holt, “Nuclear Power: Outlook for New U.S. Reactors,” CRS Report for Congress (March 9, 2007): 3. Available at http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL33442.pdf
p. 152 A massive study of the future of nuclear power by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2003
Eric S. Beckjord, Stephen Ansolabehere, John Deutch, Michael Driscoll, Paul E. Gray, John P. Holdren, Paul L. Joskow, Richard K. Lester, Ernest J. Moniz, and Neil E. Todreas, The Future of Nuclear Power (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2003): ix. Available at http://web.mit.edu/nuclearpower/

John M. Deutch, Charles W. Forsberg, Andrew C. Kadak, Mujid S. Kazimi, Ernest J. Moniz, and John E. Parsons, Update of the MIT 2003 Future of Nuclear Power (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2009). Available at http://web.mit.edu/nuclearpower/
p. 152 One pound of uranium contains as much energy as three million pounds of coal
Union of Concerned Scientists, “How Nuclear Power Works,” last updated February 11, 2003. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/nuclear_power/nuclear_power_technology/how-nuclear-power-works.html
p. 152 The expected lifetime of most older plants has been extended
John M. Deutch, Charles W. Forsberg, Andrew C. Kadak, Mujid S. Kazimi, Ernest J. Moniz, and John E. Parsons, Update of the MIT 2003 Future of Nuclear Power (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2009): 5. Available at http://web.mit.edu/nuclearpower/
p. 152 The average “capacity factor” of the U.S. fleet of existing nuclear reactors
Energy Information Administration, “Nuclear Power: 12 percent of America's Generating Capacity, 20 percent of the Electricity,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/nuclear/page/analysis/nuclearpower.html

John M. Deutch, Charles W. Forsberg, Andrew C. Kadak, Mujid S. Kazimi, Ernest J. Moniz, and John E. Parsons, Update of the MIT 2003 Future of Nuclear Power (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2009): 5. Available at http://web.mit.edu/nuclearpower/
p. 152 the amount of electricity produced by the existing fleet of U.S. reactors
Larry Parker and Mark Holt, “Nuclear Power: Outlook for New U.S. Reactors,” CRS Report for Congress (March 9, 2007): 4. Available at http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL33442.pdf
p. 152 no new units but instead an actual decline
Mycle Schneider, Steve Thomas, Antony Froggatt, and Doug Koplow, “The World Nuclear Energy Status Report 2009,” August 2009. Available at http://www.bmu.de/files/english/pdf/application/pdf/welt_statusbericht_atomindustrie_0908_en_bf.pdf
p. 152 no nuclear power plants ordered after 1972 have been built to completion
Larry Parker and Mark Holt, “Nuclear Power: Outlook for New U.S. Reactors,” CRS Report for Congress (March 9, 2007): 1. Available at http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL33442.pdf
p. 152 Uranium is the heaviest natural element in the earth
World Nuclear Association, “What is uranium? How does it work?” last updated June 2006. Available at http://world-nuclear.org/education/uran.htm
p. 152 its nucleus holds 92 protons (compared with only one in the nucleus of a hydrogen atom)
World Nuclear Association, “What is uranium? How does it work?” last updated June 2006. Available at http://world-nuclear.org/education/uran.htm
p. 154 When the nucleus of a uranium atom splits... chain reaction
U.S. Department of Energy, “The History of Nuclear Energy” (Department of Energy, DOE/NE-0088, 1994). Available at http://www.ne.doe.gov/pdfFiles/History.pdf
p. 154 made of cadmium, boron, indium, silver, or hafnium
World Nuclear Association, “Electricity Generation – Nuclear Power Reactors,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.world-nuclear.org/how/npreactors.html
p. 154 How a Nuclear Reactor Works [Sidebar]
Union of Concerned Scientists, “How Nuclear Power Works,” last updated February 11, 2003. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/nuclear_power/nuclear_power_technology/how-nuclear-power-works.html
p. 155 pressurized water reactor... two thirds of the nuclear power plants... more than 60 percent worldwide... “boiling water” reactors
United States:
Energy Information Administration, “U.S. Nuclear Statistics,” last updated January 2009. Available at http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/nuclear/page/operation/statoperation.html

Worldwide:
World Nuclear Association, “Nuclear Power Reactors,” last updated April 2009. Available at http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf32.html
p. 155 By 1985, Forbes magazine had concluded
James Cook, “Nuclear Follies,” Forbes, February 11, 1985.
p. 155 an estimated 4,000 people will ultimately lose their lives... more than 100 times as much radiation... Three hundred and fifty thousand people
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, “Backgrounder on Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident,” April 2009. Available at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/chernobyl-bg.html

International Atomic Energy Agency, “In Focus: Chernobyl,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.iaea.org/NewsCenter/Focus/Chernobyl/faqs.shtml
p. 155 More than 1,400 miles away in the United Kingdom... still is not safe to eat sheep from some areas of Wales
Terry Macalister and Helen Carter, “Britain's farmers still restricted by Chernobyl nuclear fallout,” The Guardian, May 12, 2009. Available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/may/12/farmers-restricted-chernobyl-disaster
p. 156 regulatory processes have been streamlined and redesigned
John M. Deutch, Charles W. Forsberg, Andrew C. Kadak, Mujid S. Kazimi, Ernest J. Moniz, and John E. Parsons, Update of the MIT 2003 Future of Nuclear Power (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2009): 5. Available at http://web.mit.edu/nuclearpower/
p. 156 France... receives more than three quarters of its electricity from nuclear reactors
Eric S. Beckjord, Stephen Ansolabehere, John Deutch, Michael Driscoll, Paul E. Gray, John P. Holdren, Paul L. Joskow, Richard K. Lester, Ernest J. Moniz, and Neil E. Todreas, The Future of Nuclear Power (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2003): 112. Available at http://web.mit.edu/nuclearpower/
p. 156 the French program is almost entirely owned by the French government... sold to the government
Eduardo Cue, “How Frace Sees Its Nuclear-Powered Future,” U.S. News and World Report, March 10, 2009. Available at http://www.usnews.com/articles/news/energy/2009/03/10/how-france-sees-its-nuclear-powered-future.html
p. 156 relies on the controversial and expensive process of reprocessing
Eduardo Cue, “How France Sees Its Nuclear-Powered Future,” U.S. News and World Report, March 10, 2009. Available at http://www.usnews.com/articles/news/energy/2009/03/10/how-france-sees-its-nuclear-powered-future.html
p. 156 the new modular reactor design... far behind schedule and way over budget
James Kanter, “In Finland, Nuclear Renaissance Runs Into Trouble,” The New York Times, May 28, 2009. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/29/business/energy-environment/29nuke.html
p. 156 The estimated cost of building a nuclear power plant... during the same period
Marsha Freeman, “Who Killed U.S. Nuclear Power?” 21st Century Science and Technology Magazine, Spring 2001. Available at http://www.21stcenturysciencetech.com/articles/spring01/nuclear_power.html

See also Rudiger Falksohn, “A Nuclear Power Renaissance,” Spiegel Online, January 16, 2007. Available at http://www.spiegel.de/international/spiegel/0,1518,460011,00.html
p. 156 cost estimates for constructing nuclear power plants... 15 percent per year
John M. Deutch, Charles W. Forsberg, Andrew C. Kadak, Mujid S. Kazimi, Ernest J. Moniz, and John E. Parsons, Update of the MIT 2003 Future of Nuclear Power (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2009): 6. Available at: http://web.mit.edu/nuclearpower/
p. 156 it is now difficult to find a single reputable engineering firm... a new nuclear power plant
Amory Lovins, presentation to Solutions Summit, New York, NY, January 12, 2009.

Steve Kidd, “Escalating costs of new build: what does it mean?,” NEI Magazine, August 22, 2008. Available at http://www.neimagazine.com/storyprint.asp?sc=2050690
p. 156 As Steve Kidd, the director of strategy and research for the World Nuclear Association, wrote last year
Steve Kidd, “Escalating Costs of New Build: What Does It Mean?” Nuclear Engineering International, August 22, 2008. Available at http://www.neimagazine.com/storyprint.asp?sc=2050690
p. 156 Experience has shown that each year of additional delay... $1 billion to the cost
Jim Landers, "Texas can take lessons from Finland's nuclear power plant delays," Dallas Morning News, December 21, 2008. Available at http://www.dallasnews.com/sharedcontent/dws/bus/stories/DN-finnuclear_21bus.ART0.State.Edition1.4a5e710.html
p. 156 TVA ordered 17 nuclear power reactors... 7 percent per year
TVA:
Energy Information Administration, Nuclear Power Generation and Fuel Cycle Report 1997 (U.S. Department of Energy, September 1997): 61-69. Available at http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/ftproot/nuclear/043697.pdf

7 Percent:
Union of Concerned Scientists, “How Nuclear Power Works,” last updated February 11, 2003. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/nuclear_power/nuclear_power_technology/how-nuclear-power-works.html
p. 156 leading to sharp increases in the price of coal... electricity use leveled off
Union of Concerned Scientists, “How Nuclear Power Works,” last updated February 11, 2003. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/nuclear_power/nuclear_power_technology/how-nuclear-power-works.html
p. 157 electricity demand settled into a slower growth rate
Union of Concerned Scientists, “How Nuclear Power Works,” last updated February 11, 2003. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/nuclear_power/nuclear_power_technology/how-nuclear-power-works.html
p. 157 TVA to cancel 10 of the plants it had ordered and to defer another
Energy Information Administration, Nuclear Power Generation and Fuel Cycle Report 1997 (U.S. Department of Energy, September 1997): 61-69. Available at http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/ftproot/nuclear/043697.pdf

Note:
TVA cancelled eight reactors and “indefinitely deferred” three reactors.
p. 157 The overall cost of electricity from TVA continued to rise dramatically
Tennessee Valley Authority, “From the New Deal to a New Century.” Available at http://www.tva.gov/abouttva/history.htm
p. 157 Overall, 138 nuclear power reactors were canceled in the United States... hiatus in construction
Energy Information Administration, Nuclear Power Generation and Fuel Cycle Report 1997 (U.S. Department of Energy, September 1997): 61-69. Available at http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/ftproot/nuclear/043697.pdf

Note:
According to the Energy Information Administration, as of 1997, 123 nuclear power reactors were cancelled, three were “indefinitely deferred,” and 13 were shut down.
p. 157 Of the 253 nuclear power reactors... proved relatively reliable
Amory Lovins, Imran Sheikh, and Alex Markevich, “Nuclear Power: Climate Fix or Folly?” (Rocky Mountain Institute, December 2008): 10. Available at http://rmi.org/images/PDFs/Energy/E09-01_NuclPwrClimFixFolly1i09.pdf
p. 157 More than one third of the remaining nuclear power workforce in the United States
APS Panel on Public Affairs, Readiness of the U.S. Nuclear Workforce for 21st Century Challenges (APS Committee on Energy and Environment, June 2008): 18. Available at http://www.aps.org/policy/reports/popa-reports/upload/Nuclear-Readiness-Report-FINAL-2.pdf
p. 157 Thirty years ago, there were 65 academic nuclear-engineering programs
Alison Go, “The New Hot Job: Nuclear Engineering,” U.S. News and World Report, August 14, 2008. Available at http://www.usnews.com/articles/education/2008/08/14/the-new-hot-job-nuclear-engineering.html
p. 157 Spain stopped the building of new nuclear power plants in 1984
"Nuclear Power In Spain," World Nuclear Association, July 2009. Available at http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf85.html
p. 158 there is only company in the world able to build the key portion
Yoshifumi Takemoto and Alan Katz, “Samurai-Sword Maker's Reactor Monopoly May Cool Nuclear Revival,” Bloomberg, March 12, 2008. Available at http://bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601109&sid=aaVMzCTMz3ms&refer=home
p. 158 South Korea has led in this respect
World Nuclear Association, “Nuclear Power in Korea,” last updated October 2009. Available at http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf81.html
p. 158 U.S. regulators are pushing hard in the same direction
Nuclear Regulatory Commission, “Nuclear Power Plant Standardization,” September 15, 1987. Available at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/commission/policy/52fr34884.pdf
p. 159 Nuclear Power Around the World [Graphic]
Worldwide:
World Nuclear Association, “World Nuclear Power Reactors & Uranium Requirements,” October 1, 2009. Available at http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/reactors.html

U.S.:
Energy Information Administration, “Nuclear,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.eia.doe.gov/fuelnuclear.html

Note:
In the U.S., 31 of the 50 states have nuclear power plants.
p. 160 Next-Generation Nuclear [Sidebar]
Alex Hutchinson, “The Next Atomic Age: Can Safe Nuclear Power Work for America?” Popular Mechanics, October 2006. Available at http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/research/3760347.html

James A. Lake, Ralph G. Bennett and John F. Kotek, "Next Generation Nuclear Power," Scientific American, January 26, 2009. Available at http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=next-generation-nuclear

Note:
In the phrase “like gumballs in a giant gumball machine,” only “giant gumball machine” should be in quotes.
p. 161 maintained seamless control over all steps in the process
Argonne National Laboratory, “Environmental Consequences of, and Control Processes For, Energy Technologies,” 1990: 237.
p. 163 There are more than 100 other new reactor designs for so-called Generation IV nuclear plants... very high temperature reactor
U.S. DOE Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee and the Generation IV International Forum, A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems (December 2002): 8. Available at http://nuclear.energy.gov/genIV/documents/gen_iv_roadmap.pdf
p. 164 a long lead time is necessary to open new uranium mines
Y.A. Sokolov, “Opening Remarks at the International Symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle,” June 22-26, 2009, International Atomic Energy Agency. Available at http://www-pub.iaea.org/Mtcd/Meetings/PDFplus/2009/cn175/URAM2009/Opening%20Session/1_111_Sokolov_IAEA.pdf.
p. 164 More than half the people employed in the uranium-mining business
Energy Information Administration, Uranium Industry Annual 1996, April 1997, p. 2, 10. Available at http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/ftproot/nuclear/047896.pdf

Energy Information Administration, “Employment in the U.S. Uranium Production Industry by Category,” May 21, 2009. Available at http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/nuclear/dupr/uemplycat.html

Note:
For several years, reclamation employment in the United States represented over half of all employment in the uranium industry. However, the proportion of person-years dedicated to reclamation has decreased in recent years.
p. 164 current reactors use only 1 percent of the available energy
George S. Stanford, Gerald E. Marsh, and William Hannum, “Reprocessing is the answer,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, August 31, 2009. Available at http://www.thebulletin.org/web-edition/op-eds/reprocessing-the-answer
p. 164 reprocessing is already being undertaken
World Nuclear Association, “Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel,” October 2009. Available at http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf69.html
p. 164 reprocessing actually increases the overall volume of waste
Allison Macfarlane, “The Future of the Back-End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Issues and Solutions,” (Solutions Summit, New York, January 12, 2009).
p. 164 reprocessing also adds significantly to the cost of the nuclear fuel cycle and still requires long-term repositories
Allison Macfarlane, “The Future of the Back-End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Issues and Solutions,” (Solutions Summit, New York, January 12, 2009).
p. 164 Harvard professor Matthew Bunn... describes these measures... “entirely voluntary”
Matthew Bunn, “Managing Risks From a Nuclear Energy Revival” (Solutions Summit, New York, January 12, 2009). Available at http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/files/bunn-goresummit-08.pdf
p. 164 Professor Graham Allison of Harvard... 50 percent
Graham Allison, “Nuclear Deterrence in the Age of Nuclear Terrorism,” Technology Review, November 7, 2008. Available at http://www.hks.harvard.edu/news-events/news/commentary/nuclear-deterrence-in-age-of-terrorism
p. 164 As the experts at M.I.T. recently pointed out
Eric S. Beckjord, Stephen Ansolabehere, John Deutch, Michael Driscoll, Paul E. Gray, John P. Holdren, Paul L. Joskow, Richard K. Lester, Ernest J. Moniz, and Neil E. Todreas, The Future of Nuclear Power (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2003): ix. Available at http://web.mit.edu/nuclearpower/
p. 165 Relative CO2 Footprints of Electricity Sources [Graphic]
Benjamin K. Sovacool, “Valuing the Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Nuclear Power: A Critical Survey,” Energy Policy, 2008: 2940-2953.
p. 166 have a half-life of hundreds of thousands of years
U.S. National Regulatory Commission, “Backgrounder on Radioactive Waste,” August 18, 2009. Available at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/radwaste.html
p. 166 Sweden and Finland have selected... open it by 2025
Foratom, European Atomic Forum, “Forsmark in Sweden to be one of the first HLW final repositories in Europe,” June 18, 2009. Available at http://www.foratom.be/ClimateChangeSem/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=627&Itemid=341
p. 166 The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission separates nuclear waste into four categories
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, “Radioactive Waste,” last updated February 11, 2009. Available at http://www.nrc.gov/waste.html
p. 166 A typical 1,000-megawatt lightwater reactor produces approximately 27 tons of high-level waste each year
World Nuclear Association, “Waste Management in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle,” last updated June 2009. Available at http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf04.html
p. 166 400,000 tons of toxic coal ash produced in a typical coal-fired generating plant each year
World Nuclear Association, “Waste Management in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle,” last updated June 2009. Available at http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf04.html
p. 166 Around 10,000 cubic meters of high-level waste is created globally each year
World Nuclear Association, “Waste Management in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle,” last updated June 2009. Available at http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf04.html
p. 166 Unlocking Nuclear Fission [Sidebar]
Scientific American, “National Ignition Facility Prepares for Fusion Test,” August 20, 2009. Available at http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=national-ignition-facility-fusion-reaction-test-lasers

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, “Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor.” Available at http://www.pppl.gov/projects/pages/tftr.html
p. 167 Though it represents only 3 percent of the total radioactive waste from reactors, it contains 95 percent of the radioactivity
World Nuclear Association, “Waste Management in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle,” last updated June 2009. Available at http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf04.html
p. 167 “low-level waste”
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, “Low-Level Waste,” last updated February 13, 2007. Available at http://www.nrc.gov/waste/low-level-waste.html
p. 167 “waste incidental to reprocessing”
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, “Waste Incidental to Reprocessing,” last updated February 11, 2009. Available at http://www.nrc.gov/waste/incidental-waste.html
p. 167 “uranium mill tailings”
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, “Uranium Mill Tailings,” last updated September 14, 2009. Available at http://www.nrc.gov/waste/incidental-waste.html
p. 167 radium, which has a half-life of more than a thousand years
G.V. Gorshkov, Z. G. Gretchenko, T. A. Il'inskaya, B. S. Kuznetsov and N. S. Shimanskaya, “The half-life of radium (Ra226),” Atomic Energy, Vol. 7, No. 5, March 1961. Available at http://www.springerlink.com/content/m41283617246p196/
p. 167 Uranium-238, the most common form of uranium in nature
Union of Concerned Scientists, “How Nuclear Power Works,” last updated February 11, 2003. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/nuclear_power/nuclear_power_technology/how-nuclear-power-works.html
p. 167 Water Demands of Energy Production [Graphic]
U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Demands On Water Resources: Report to Congress on the Interdependency of Energy and Water (December 2006). Available at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/coalpower/ewr/pubs/DOE%20energy-water%20nexus%20Report%20to%20Congress%201206.pdf
p. 168 spent fuel in the United States is now typically stored in dry casks
US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, “Fact Sheet on Dry Cask Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel.” Available at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/dry-cask-storage.html

See also Gerald Marsh and George Stanford, “Terrorism and Nuclear Power: What are the Risks?” National Policy Analysis #374. Available at http://www.nationalcenter.org/NPA374.html
p. 168 experts found the site to be tectonically active... long-term storage
Allison M. MacFarlane, Testimony to the Environment and Public Works Committee of the United States Senate, “Yucca Mountain and High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal,” March 1, 2006. Available at http://epw.senate.gov/109th/MacFarlane_Testimony.pdf
p. 168 Tennessee Valley Authority has refurbished and restarted one of the reactors... previously ordered but mothballed
Tennessee Valley Authority, “TVA's Nuclear at a Glance.” Available at http://www.tva.gov/power/nuclear/nuclear_fact_sheet.pdf
p. 168 no orders for new reactors have been placed by any U.S. utility since 1978
Larry Parker and Mark Holt, “Nuclear Power: Outlook for New U.S. Reactors,” CRS Report for Congress (March 9, 2007): 1. Available at http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL33442.pdf
p. 168 These subsidies, estimated by Rocky Mountain Institute cofounder Amory Lovins to total more than $500 billion... debt for old nuclear reactors
Lovins, Amory, Imran Sheikh, and Alex Markevich, Rocky Mountain Institute, Forget Nuclear, 2008. Available at http://www.rmi.org/sitepages/pid467.php
p. 168 Seventeen new applications for 26 new reactors have been submitted
John M. Deutch, Charles W. Forsberg, Andrew C. Kadak, Mujid S. Kazimi, Ernest J. Moniz, and John E. Parsons, Update of the MIT 2003 Future of Nuclear Power (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2009): 5. Available at http://web.mit.edu/nuclearpower/
p. 168 24 are located in areas that are currently experiencing severe levels of drought
“Drought could shut down nuclear power plants,” Associated Press, January 23, 2008. Available at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/22804065/
p. 168 These areas are among those where severe drought is expected
United States Global Change Research Program, Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States, 2009. Available at http://downloads.globalchange.gov/usimpacts/pdfs/southeast.pdf
p. 168 a TVA reactor in Alabama was forced to briefly suspend operations
“Drought could shut down nuclear power plants", Associated Press, January 23, 2008. Available at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/22804065/
p. 168 France, Spain, and Germany were forced to shut down
Anita Elash, “Heat Spells Trouble for France's Nuclear Reactors,” National Public Radio, August 21, 2007. Available at http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=13818689