“There is actually a fairly simple solution to resolving all the questions and uncertainties about whether CCS is economically plausible and, if so, which techniques are the best ones to use: put a high price on carbon.”

Our Sources Of Energy

Chapter Seven

Carbon Capture And Sequestration

p. 136 T.S. Eliot once wrote
T.S. Eliot, “The Hollow Men,” Complete Poems and Plays (1952): 58.
p. 136 would require the coal industry to increase the amount of coal it now burns by 25 to 35 percent
Barbara Freese, Steve Clemmer, and Alan Nogee, Coal Power in a Warming World: A Sensible Transition to Cleaner Energy Options (Union of Concerned Scientists, October 2008): 18. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/clean_energy/Coal-power-in-a-warming-world.pdf
p. 136 the volume would be equivalent to 30 million barrels of oil per day
James Katzer (ed.), The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007): ix. Available at http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf

Note:
The original source says that “If 60% of the CO2 produced... were to be captured and compressed... its volume would about equal the total U.S. oil consumption of 20 million barrels per day.” The text uses this relationship to calculate the volume of CO2 if 100% were captured and compressed – roughly 30 million barrels.
p. 136 three times the volume of all the oil imported by the United States each day
Energy Information Administration, “U.S. Imports by Country of Origin,” September 29, 2009. Available at http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/pet_move_impcus_a2_nus_ep00_im0_mbblpd_m.htm
p. 136 the amount (by volume) would be one third that of all natural gas
James Katzer (ed.), The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007): ix. Available at http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf
p. 137 The Union of Concerned Scientists put it this way
Barbara Freese, Steve Clemmer, and Alan Nogee, Coal Power in a Warming World: A Sensible Transition to Cleaner Energy Options (Union of Concerned Scientists, October 2008): 18. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/clean_energy/Coal-power-in-a-warming-world.pdf
p. 137 The Massachusetts Institute of Technology in its recent study... concluded that
James Katzer (ed.), The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007): 14. Available at http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf
p. 137 Howard Herzog of M.I.T. argues that
Howard Herzog, interview with author, 2009.
p. 137 the obscene practice called “mountaintop mining”
Barbara Freese, Steve Clemmer, and Alan Nogee, Coal Power in a Warming World: A Sensible Transition to Cleaner Energy Options (Union of Concerned Scientists, October 2008): 7. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/clean_energy/Coal-power-in-a-warming-world.pdf
p. 137 Reductions in sulfur dioxide mandated by law have lessened
James Katzer (ed.), The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007): 137. Available at http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf
p. 137 which remains the second largest source of nitrogen oxide
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Air Emission Sources: Nitrogen Oxides,” last updated October 21, 2008. Available at http://www.epa.gov/air/emissions/nox.htm
p. 137 Pennsylvania leading the way
Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, “Pennsylvania's Mercury Reduction Rule,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.depweb.state.pa.us/mercury/site/default.asp
p. 137 the largest man-made source of mercury pollution
United States:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Clean Air Mercury Rule: Basic Information,” last updated March 27, 2009. Available at http://epa.gov/oar/mercuryrule/basic.htm

Worldwide:
UNEP Chemicals Branch, The Global Atmospheric Mercury Assessment: Sources, Emissions and Transport (Geneva, UNEP-Chemicals: 2008): 2. Available at http://www.chem.unep.ch/mercury/Atmospheric_Emissions/UNEP%20SUMMARY%20REPORT%20-%20CORRECTED%20May09%20%20final%20for%20WEB%202008.pdf
p. 138 The 130 million tons of coal ash and sludge
Barry Breen, “Testimony of Barry Breen", Coal Combustion Waste Storage and Water Quality: Hearing Before the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, Water Resources and the Environment Subcommittee, 111th Cong., 1st sess., April 30, 2009. Available at http://Transportation.house.gov/Media/file/water/20090430/EPA%20Testimony.pdf
p. 138 In 2008... one billion gallons of this toxic sludge burst out
Earth Justice, “Kingston Coal Ash Disaster: First 100 Days,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.earthjustice.org/library/features/kingston-coal-ash-spill-first-100-days.html
p. 138 the M.I.T. study stated that the idea of a “capture ready” coal plant
James Katzer (ed.), The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007): xiv, 99. Available at http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf
p. 138 An estimated 75 percent of the cost involved
James Katzer (ed.), The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007): 58. Available at http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf

Note:
The report says “the cost of transport and injection of CO2 should be less than 20% of the total cost for capture, compression, transport, and injection.” The text's estimate of 75% is an approximation.
p. 138 a very high volume of gas must be treated in order to remove most of the CO2
James Katzer (ed.), The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007): 24. Available at http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf
p. 138 Ninety-nine percent of all coal-fired power plants in the United States burn pulverized coal
Barbara Freese , Steve Clemmer, and Alan Nogee, Coal Power in a Warming World: A Sensible Transition to Cleaner Energy Options (Union of Concerned Scientists, October 2008): 11-2. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/clean_energy/Coal-power-in-a-warming-world.pdf

Note:
The report says “Almost all coal plants operating today use 'pulverized coal' technology.” The report additionally notes that, with regard to alternative coal plant designs, there are only four IGCC plants in the world.
p. 140 composed of 10 to 15 percent CO2
National Energy Technology Laboratory, “CO2 Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas.” Available at http://www.netl.doe.gov/publications/factsheets/project/Proj589.pdf
p. 140 only 32 percent of the heat energy contained in the coal
James Katzer (ed.), The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007): 17. Available at http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf
p. 140 are capable of utilizing up to 40 percent
Barbara Freese, Steve Clemmer, and Alan Nogee, Coal Power in a Warming World: A Sensible Transition to Cleaner Energy Options (Union of Concerned Scientists, October 2008): 25. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/clean_energy/Coal-power-in-a-warming-world.pdf
p. 140 fluidized bed combustion
James Katzer (ed.), The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007): 21-2. Available at http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf
p. 140 many of the same factors that have produced unsustainable hikes in construction costs... coal-fired generating plants
David Schlissel, Allison Smith, and Rachel Wilson, Coal-Fired Power Plant Construction Costs (Synapse Energy Economics, Inc., July 2008). Available at http://www.synapse-energy.com/Downloads/SynapsePaper.2008-07.0.Coal-Plant-Construction-Costs.A0021.pdf
p. 140 economic studies indicate that the cost of transporting CO2 via pipelines... 10 million tons per year
James Katzer (ed.), The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007): 58. Available at http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf
p. 140 There are now more than 3,900 miles of CO2 pipelines
Jim Dooley, GTSP Annual Meeting: Update on CCS (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, May 27, 2009). Available at http://www.pnl.gov/gtsp/workshops/2009/dooley_gtsp_ccs_update_june_2_2009.pdf
p. 141 How Carbon Dioxide Is Sequestered [Graphic]
Barney Capehart, Encyclopedia of Energy Engineering and Technology, volume 3, CRC Press, 2007, p. 126
p. 143 would be dangerous if the CO2 concentrations were higher than 7 to 10 percent in the air
IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2005): 12. Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/special-reports/srccs/srccs_wholereport.pdf
p. 143 More than half of all coal-fired power plants operate
James Katzer (ed.), The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007): 58-9. Available at http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf
p. 143 what scientists refer to as “capillary forces”
James Katzer (ed.), The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007): 44. Available at http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf
p. 143 at a depth of one kilometer or more
James Katzer (ed.), The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007): 44. Available at http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf
p. 143 typically covered by impermeable layers of shale or by minerals
James Katzer (ed.), The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007): 44. Available at http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf
p. 143 Two major studies... have both concluded... when it is first stored
James Katzer (ed.), The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007): 97. Available at http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf

Bert Metz, Ogunlade Davidson, Heleen de Coninck, Manuela Loos, and Leo Meyer (eds.), IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2005): 34. Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/special-reports/srccs/srccs_wholereport.pdf
p. 143 it is difficult and time-consuming to estimate the “pore-volume”
James Katzer (ed.), The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007): 45. Available at http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf
p. 143 a complex, heterogeneous, nonlinear system
James Katzer (ed.), The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007): 52. Available at http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf
p. 144 New fine-grain seismic techniques
James Katzer (ed.), The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007): 48. Available at http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf
p. 144 more than 1700 people
David Brown, “Scientists hope to quiet Cameroon's killer lakes,” The Seattle Times, February 1, 2000. Available at http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=20000201&slug=4002291
p. 144 equipped with relatively inexpensive monitoring systems
Marguerite Holloway, “Trying to Tame the Roar of Deadly Lakes,” The New York Times, February 27, 2001, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2001/02/27/science/trying-to-tame-the-roar-of-deadly-lakes.html
p. 145 One proposed CO2 sequestration site in The Netherlands... an independent conclusion

Fred Pals, “Barendrechters Stand Up To Shell's Plan to Bury CO2,” Bloomberg, April 20, 2009. Available at http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601109&sid=agmq9zHTafTM

Terry Slavin and Alok Hja, “Not under our backyard, say Germans, in blow to CO2 plans,” The Guardian, July 29, 2009. Available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/jul/29/germany-carbon-capture

Guy Chazan, “Shell's Plan to Lead in Storage of Carbon Dioxide Hits a Snag,” The Wall Street Journal, April 21, 2009. Available at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124024483430835389.html
p. 145 deep coal seams... potential storage sites
James Katzer (ed.), The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007): 44. Available at http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf
p. 145 sequestration has been achieved only for small volumes
Barbara Freese, Steve Clemmer, and Alan Nogee, Coal Power in a Warming World: A Sensible Transition to Cleaner Energy Options (Union of Concerned Scientists, October 2008): 53. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/clean_energy/Coal-power-in-a-warming-world.pdf
p. 145 according to the M.I.T. expert study
James Katzer (ed.), The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007): 51-2. Available at http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf
p. 145 in the 1960s several somewhat large quakes were induced in Denver
Bert Metz, Ogunlade Davidson, Heleen de Coninck, Manuela Loos, and Leo Meyer (eds.), IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2005): 249. Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/special-reports/srccs/srccs_wholereport.pdf
p. 145 used in oil fields in west Texas, southern Louisiana, southwest Oklahoma, and the border region overlapping Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming
Jim Dooley, GTSP Annual Meeting: Update on CCS (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, May 27, 2009). Available at http://www.pnl.gov/gtsp/workshops/2009/dooley_gtsp_ccs_update_june_2_2009.pdf
p. 145 CO2 from a coal-to-synthetic-gas plant in North Dakota
Barbara Freese, Steve Clemmer, and Alan Nogee, Coal Power in a Warming World: A Sensible Transition to Cleaner Energy Options (Union of Concerned Scientists, October 2008): 51. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/clean_energy/Coal-power-in-a-warming-world.pdf
p. 145 offers little that is relevant... have not been conducted
James Katzer (ed.), The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007): xii. Available at http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf
p. 146 There are three larger-volume CCS demonstration projects... production of natural gas... two of the three have chosen saline formations for their repositories
Note:
The “three larger-volume CCS demonstration projects involving the production of natural gas” are Sleipner, Snohvit, and In Salah. Sleipner and Snohvit use saline aquifers while In Salah uses a depleted gas field. The Weyburn project captures CO2 from a coal gasification plant and uses it for Enhanced Oil Recovery.
p. 146 Norway is sequestering CO2 under the ocean bottom... Sleipner gas field
Barbara Freese, Steve Clemmer, and Alan Nogee, Coal Power in a Warming World: A Sensible Transition to Cleaner Energy Options (Union of Concerned Scientists, October 2008): 53. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/clean_energy/Coal-power-in-a-warming-world.pdf

James Katzer (ed.), The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007): 48. Available at http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf
p. 146 natural gas reservoirs at In Salah in Algeria
Barbara Freese, Steve Clemmer, and Alan Nogee, Coal Power in a Warming World: A Sensible Transition to Cleaner Energy Options (Union of Concerned Scientists, October 2008): 53. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/clean_energy/Coal-power-in-a-warming-world.pdf

James Katzer (ed.), The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007): 48. Available at http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf
p. 146 a CCS project has been launched at Weyburn in Saskatchewan... used to monitor potential leakage
Barbara Freese, Steve Clemmer, and Alan Nogee, Coal Power in a Warming World: A Sensible Transition to Cleaner Energy Options (Union of Concerned Scientists, October 2008): 53. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/clean_energy/Coal-power-in-a-warming-world.pdf

James Katzer (ed.), The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007): 48. Available at http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf
p. 146 the M.I.T. report noted that the projects it studied
James Katzer (ed.), The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007): 52. Available at http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf
p. 146 Statoil has recently opened a second CCS operation
Barbara Freese, Steve Clemmer, and Alan Nogee, Coal Power in a Warming World: A Sensible Transition to Cleaner Energy Options (Union of Concerned Scientists, October 2008): 53. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/clean_energy/Coal-power-in-a-warming-world.pdf
p. 146 The largest incentive motivating Statoil is the CO2 tax
Olva Kaarstad, “The Sleipner Project,” IEA Asia Pacific Conference on Zero Emissions Technologies (Australia, February 18, 2004). Available at http://www.iea.org/work/2004/zets/conference/presentations/kaarstad.pdf
p. 146 Vattenfall... has recently announced... Jänschwalde power plant in Germany
Vattenfall, “CCS: the first step towards clean coal power,” Annual Report 2008. Available at http://report.vattenfall.com/annualreport2008/Menu/CCS
p. 146 A large-scale CO2 sequestration project associated with ethanol production
Mark Clayton, “Dig the coal, bury the carbon,” Christian Science Monitor, July 21, 2009. Available at http://features.csmonitor.com/environment/2009/07/21/dig-the-coal-bury-the-carbon/
p. 146 Several other projects at the one-million-ton-per-year scale have been proposed... under way in Australia
IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme, “R, D & D Projects Database,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.CO2captureandstorage.info/search.php
p. 146 One innovative CCS plant... is proposed for Linden, New Jersey... and geochemical characteristics
Kate Galbraith, “A Plan for U.S. Emissions to Be Buried Under Sea,” The New York Times, April 17. 2009. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/18/business/energy-environment/18clean.html

Amy Coombs, “An Ocean Trap for Carbon Dioxide,” Technology Review, May 14, 2009. Available at http://www.technologyreview.com/energy/22650/
p. 146 FutureGen... announced in 2003... canceled in early 2008
Stephen Power, Rebecca Smith and Jeffrey Ball, “U.S. Drops Coal Project,” The Wall Street Journal, January 31, 2008. Available at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB120175397548831345.html
p. 146 muddled objectives
James Katzer (ed.), The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007): xiv-xv. Available at http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf
p. 146 “too much future, too little gen”
Andrew Revkin, “The (Energy) Future Is Not Now", Dot Earth, December 19, 2007. Available at http://dotearth.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/12/19/the-energy-future-is-not-now/
p. 146 It is currently being restarted
Ben Geman, “DOE Revives FutureGen, Reversing Bush-Era Decision,” Greenwire, June 12, 2009. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/gwire/2009/06/12/12greenwire-doe-revives-futuregen-reversing-bush-era-decis-47303.html
p. 147 the National Research Council... concluded in 2007
National Research Council, Coal: Research and Development to Support National Energy Policy (Washington: The National Academies Press, 2007): 44. Available at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11977&page=44
p. 147 China... experiencing episodic coal shortages and is importing large amounts... India is also experiencing shortages... principally problems in the supply chain
Jane Macartney, “China feels new year chill as coal shortage bites,” The Times, January 27, 2008. Available at http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article3259985.ece

International Energy Agency, Cleaner Coal in China (International Energy Agency, 2009). Available at http://www.iea.org/publications/free_new_Desc.asp?PUBS_ID=2089

James Katzer (ed.), The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007): 63-75. Available at http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf
p. 147 many... have recommended the establishment of a new federal government entity
James Katzer (ed.), The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007): xii. Available at http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf
p. 148 Legislation pending in the U.S. Congress
“Climate Bill Earmarks $500M for Clean Coal 'Admin Expenses,'” SolveClimate, June 2, 2009. Available at http://solveclimate.com/blog/20090602/climate-bill-earmarks-500m-clean-coal-admin-expenses
p. 148 on top of an additional $6 billion in subsidies enacted over the previous four years
Matthew L. Wald, “Stimulus Money Puts Clean Coal Projects on a Faster Track,” The New York Times, March 16, 2009. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/17/business/energy-environment/17coal.html?dbk

Union of Concerned Scientists, “Summary of the Energy Bill (Conference report to HR 6)", last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/clean_energy/summaryoftheenergybill.pdf