“The results over the last several years have convinced many analysts that producing first-generation ethanol from corn is a mistake.”

Our Sources Of Energy

Chapter Six

Growing Fuel

p. 113 About 50 percent of fuel used in gasoline-powered cars is ethanol
Don Hofstrand, “Brazil's ethanol industry, part two,” Ag Decision Maker Newsletter, February 2009. Available at http://www.extension.iastate.edu/agdm/articles/hof/HofFeb09.html
p. 114 roughly one fifth of each barrel of oil is used
Energy Information Administration, “Oil (petroleum),” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/kids/energy.cfm?page=oil_home-basics
p. 114 more than 90 percent of the biomass energy being produced in the world
International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook: 2008 (International Energy Agency, 2008): 161. Available at http://www.iea.org/weo/2008.asp
p. 116 repeated life-cycle analyses of this process have led to the growing realization
Jane Earley and Alice McKeown, Red, White, and Green: Transforming U.S. Biofuels (Worldwatch Report 180, July 2009): 13. Available at http://www.worldwatch.org/node/6183
p. 116 a truly sustainable manner
These principles were partially informed by material from the Council on Sustainable Biomass Production, available at http://www.csbp.org
p. 117 as vice president of the United States in 1994
“Rule on Ethanol Is Upheld,” The New York Times, August 4, 1994. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/1994/08/04/business/rule-on-ethanol-is-upheld.html
p. 117 with roughly one third the greenhouse gas emissions of U.S. corn-based ethanol
Rainer Zah, Heinz Böni, Marcel Gauch, Roland Hischier, Martin Lehmann, and Patrick Wäger, Life Cycle Assessment of Energy Products: Environmental Impact Assessment of Biofuels (Bern, May 22, 2007): IV. Executive Summary available at http://www.bfe.admin.ch/php/modules/publikationen/stream.php?extlang=en&name=en_667574407.pdf
p. 117 Brazil began its National Alcohol Program in 1975
Vanessa Cordonnier, “Brazilian Ethanol Policy: Lessons for the United States,” Journal of Energy Security (February 19, 2009). Available at http://www.ensec.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=179:brazilian-ethanol-policy-lessons-for-the-united-states&catid=92:issuecontent&Itemid=341
p. 117 Sugarcane uses far less petroleum-intensive fertilizer because it is a perennial crop
Andris Piebalgs, “A sweet way to reduce CO2 emissions,” February 20, 2009. Available at http://blogs.ec.europa.eu/piebalgs/a-sweet-way-to-reduce-CO2-emissions/.
p. 117 it produces much more biomass per acre than corn
Matthew W. Veal and Mari S. Chinn, “Ethanol: A gasoline alternative for North Carolina” (North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, October 2007): 4. Available at http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/agcomm/difference/biofuels/pdfs/ethanol_report.pdf
p. 118 the sugarcane growing areas, currently less than 2 percent of Brazil's arable land, are far from the Amazon
Andris Piebalgs, “A sweet way to reduce CO2 emissions,” February 20, 2009. Available at http://blogs.ec.europa.eu/piebalgs/a-sweet-way-to-reduce-CO2-emissions/
p. 118 In 2003, Brazil began to manufacture and sell flexible-fuel vehicles... large volumes of ethanol into foreign markets
“Brazil buys into flex-fuel cars,” Associated Press, August 30, 2004. Available at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5829046/

Simla Tokgoz and Amani Elobeid, “Policy and Competitiveness of U.S. and Brazilian Ethanol,” Iowa Ag Review Online, Spring 2006, Vol. 12, No. 2. Available at http://www.card.iastate.edu/iowa_ag_review/spring_06/article3.aspx
p. 118 sugarcane ethanol made in the U.S. is not competitive with ethanol made in Brazil
Brent D. Yacobucci and Randy Schnepf, “Ethanol and Biofuels: Agriculture, Infrastructure, and Market Constraints Related to Expanded Production,” CRS Report for Congress (March 16, 2007): 10. Available at http://collinpeterson.house.gov/PDF/ethanol.pdf
p. 118 high U.S. tariffs sharply limit the importation of Brazilian ethanol
Brent D. Yacobucci and Randy Schnepf, “Ethanol and Biofuels: Agriculture, Infrastructure, and Market Constraints Related to Expanded Production,” CRS Report for Congress (March 16, 2007): 2. Available at http://collinpeterson.house.gov/PDF/ethanol.pdf
p. 118 corn yields approximately 400 gallons of ethanol per acre, compared with 650
Matthew W. Veal and Mari S. Chinn, “Ethanol: A gasoline alternative for North Carolina” (North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, October 2007): 4. Available at http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/agcomm/difference/biofuels/pdfs/ethanol_report.pdf
p. 118 cannot be shipped through existing pipeline networks
Brent D. Yacobucci and Randy Schnepf, “Ethanol and Biofuels: Agriculture, Infrastructure, and Market Constraints Related to Expanded Production,” CRS Report for Congress (March 16, 2007): 8. Available at http://collinpeterson.house.gov/PDF/ethanol.pdf
p. 118 net greenhouse gas emissions from corn-based ethanol turn out to be almost equal
Jane Earley and Alice McKeown, Red, White, and Green: Transforming U.S. Biofuels (Worldwatch Report 180, July 2009): 13. Available at http://www.worldwatch.org/node/6183
p. 118 only two thirds of the energy in a gallon of gasoline... ethanol content in the fuel
Energy Information Administration, “Biofuels in the U.S. Transportation Sector,” February 2007. Available at http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/analysispaper/biomass.html
p. 118 five billion gallons of ethanol... 140 billion gallons of gasoline... a 10 percent or lower blend
Brent D. Yacobucci and Randy Schnepf, “Ethanol and Biofuels: Agriculture, Infrastructure, and Market Constraints Related to Expanded Production,” CRS Report for Congress (March 16, 2007): 1. Available at http://collinpeterson.house.gov/PDF/ethanol.pdf
p. 118 Scientific American published a study in 2009
George W. Huber and Bruce E. Dale, “Grassoline: Biofuels beyond Corn,” Scientific American, July 2009. Available at http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=grassoline-biofuels-beyond-corn
p. 118 The Congressional Research Service found in a 2007 study
Brent D. Yacobucci and Randy Schnepf, “Ethanol and Biofuels: Agriculture, Infrastructure, and Market Constraints Related to Expanded Production,” CRS Report for Congress (March 16, 2007): 8. Available at http://collinpeterson.house.gov/PDF/ethanol.pdf
p. 118 an incentive program to encourage automakers to manufacture cars and light trucks
Union of Concerned Scientists, “The Dual-Fuel Vehicle Incentive Program,” last updated April 2, 2008. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_vehicles/technologies_and_fuels/biofuels/the-dual-fuel-vehicle.html
p. 118 requires expenditures of only about $100 per vehicle
Thomas Beaumont, “Energy secretary wants E85 capability in all cars,” Des Moines Register, June 23, 2009.
p. 120 studies show that only 6 percent of the flexible-fuel vehicles use E85 fuel as their primary fuel
Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review 2008 (U.S. Department of Energy, June 2009): 294. Available at http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/pdf/aer.pdf

Brent D. Yacobucci and Randy Schnepf, “Ethanol and Biofuels: Agriculture, Infrastructure, and Market Constraints Related to Expanded Production,” CRS Report for Congress (March 16, 2007): 9. Available at http://collinpeterson.house.gov/PDF/ethanol.pdf

Note:
The “6 percent” figure was calculated by dividing 364,000 “ethanol” vehicles (from Figure 10.5 of the EIA report) by 6 million total E85-capable vehicles (from page 9 of the CRS report).
p. 120 less than one half of 1 percent of U.S. vehicle fueling stations
Energy Information Administration, “Biofuels in the U.S. Transportation Sector,” February 2007. Available at http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/analysispaper/biomass.html
p. 120 alternative fuel stations are largely clustered in the upper Midwest
Renewable Fuels Association, Growing Innovation: America's Energy Future Starts at Home (February 2009): 4. Available at http://www.ethanolrfa.org/objects/pdf/outlook/RFA_Outlook_2009.pdf
p. 120 The principal benefit of this program has been
Union of Concerned Scientists, “The Dual-Fuel Vehicle Incentive Program,” last updated April 2, 2008. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_vehicles/technologies_and_fuels/biofuels/the-dual-fuel-vehicle.html

Alexei Barrionuevo and Micheline Maynard, “Dual-Fuel Vehicles Open Mileage Loophole for Carmakers,” The New York Times, August 31, 2006. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/31/business/31loophole.html
p. 120 the significant increase in world food prices during 2007-08
Jane Earley and Alice McKeown, Red, White, and Green: Transforming U.S. Biofuels (Worldwatch Report 180, July 2009): 8. Available at http://www.worldwatch.org/node/6183
p. 120 Detailed studies later found other causes
Katarina Wahlberg, “Are We Approaching a Global Food Crisis?” (Global Policy Forum, March 3, 2008). Available at http://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/217/46194.html

“Australia's Food Bowl Lies Empty,” BBC News, March 11, 2008. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7289194.stm

Keith Bradsher, “As Australia dries, a global shortage of rice,” The New York Times, April 17, 2008. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/17/business/worldbusiness/17iht-17warm.12077306.html
p. 120 when oil prices are high... when food prices are also at their highest
Kathleen Kingsbury, “After the Oil Crisis, a Food Crisis?” Time, November 16, 2007. Available at http://www.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,1684910,00.html

Vivienne Walt, “The World's Growing Food-Price Crisis,” Time, February 27. 2008. Available at http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1717572,00.html
p. 120 the U.S. National Research Council found in 2008
National Research Council, Water Implications of Biofuels Production in the United States (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2008): 46. Available at http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12039

Note:
The National Research Council found that each gallon of corn ethanol requires four gallons at the refinery, but the other two figures in this statement – 142 gallons for the growing of corn and 785 gallons in irrigated areas – came from two additional studies.
p. 120 142 gallons on average for the growing of corn
Yi-Wen Chiu, Brian Walseth, and Sangwon Suh, “Water Embodied in Bioethanol in the United States,” Environmental Science and Technology 43, no. 8 (2009): 2688-2692.
p. 120 785 gallons in irrigated areas
Andy Aden, “Water Usage for Current and Future Ethanol Production,” Southwest Hydrology (September/October 2007): 22-3. Available at http://epw.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=Files.View&FileStore_id=3d2f1427-d51d-4a54-8739-166853ee1c44
p. 120 most of the U.S. corn crop is rain fed
Andy Aden, “Water Usage for Current and Future Ethanol Production,” Southwest Hydrology (September/October 2007): 22-3. Available at http://epw.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=Files.View&FileStore_id=3d2f1427-d51d-4a54-8739-166853ee1c44
p. 120 deeper and more frequent droughts... long associated with global warming
Tom Kenworthy, “A Stormy Forecast for U.S. Agriculture,” Center for American Progress, June 1, 2009. Available at http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2009/06/acesa_farm.html

U.S. Climate Change Science Program, “Weather and Climate Extremes in a Changing Climate,” June 2008. Available at http://downloads.climatescience.gov/sap/sap3-3/sap3-3-final-all.pdf
p. 120 have already been denied permits
Dennis Keeney and Mark Muller, Water Use by Ethanol Plants: Potential Challenges (The Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, October 2006). Available at http://www.iatp.org/iatp/publications.cfm?accountID=258&refID=89449
p. 120 plants in Minnesota and Wisconsin have faced public opposition
“Ethanol's Water Shortage,” The Wall Street Journal, October 17, 2007. Available at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB119258870811261613.html
p. 120 Other new biorefineries have also been proposed
Yi-Wen Chiu, Brian Walseth, and Sangwon Suh, “Water Embodied in Bioethanol in the United States,” Environmental Science and Technology 43, no. 8 (2009): 2688-2692.
p. 122 larger net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions than corn ethanol
Jane Earley and Alice McKeown, Red, White, and Green: Transforming U.S. Biofuels (Worldwatch Report 180, July 2009): 14. Available at http://www.worldwatch.org/node/6183
p. 122 clearing of peat forests in Indonesia and Malaysia
Oscar Venter, Erik Meijaard, Hugh Possingham, Rona Dennis, Douglas Sheil, Serge Wich, Lex Hovani, and Kerrie Wilson, “Carbon payments as a safeguard for threatened tropical mammals,” Conservation Letters 2 (2009): 123-129. Available at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/122371345/PDFSTART
p. 122 Indonesia has now become the third largest source of greenhouse gas pollution
PEACE, Indonesia and Climate Change: Current Status and Policies (2007). Available at http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTINDONESIA/Resources/Environment/ClimateChange_Full_EN.pdf
p. 122 larger projects are now proposed that will use waste fat
Ron Kotrba, “Food Waste to Fuel Tanks,” Biodiesel Magazine, November 2006. Available at http://www.biodieselmagazine.com/article.jsp?article_id=1251
p. 122 Oil palms yield 610 gallons per acre... feedstock of choice in the United States
Matthew W. Veal and Mari S. Chinn, “Ethanol: A gasoline alternative for North Carolina” (North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, October 2007): 4. Available at http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/agcomm/difference/biofuels/pdfs/ethanol_report.pdf

Al Kurki, Amanda Hill, and Mike Morris, Biodiesel: The Sustainability Dimensions (National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service 2006). Available at http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/biodiesel_sustainable.html
p. 122 In 2008, the majority of the U.S. biodiesel supply was exported
Energy Information Administration, “Short Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Biodiesel Supply and Consumption in the Short-Term Energy Outlook” (U.S. Department of Energy, April 2009): 7. Available at http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/special/2009_sp_01.pdf
p. 122 Fuel Yield for Biofuel Crops [Graphic]
Matthew W. Veal and Mari S. Chinn, “Ethanol: A gasoline alternative for North Carolina” (North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, October 2007): 4. Available at http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/agcomm/difference/biofuels/pdfs/ethanol_report.pdf

Al Kurki, Amanda Hill, and Mike Morris, Biodiesel: The Sustainability Dimensions (National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service, 2006). Available at http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/biodiesel_sustainable.html
p. 123 “Cellulosic” biofuels can be made from... waste streams
Jane Earley and Alice McKeown, Red, White, and Green: Transforming U.S. Biofuels (Worldwatch Report 180, July 2009): 16. Available at http://www.worldwatch.org/node/6183
p. 123 expected to have far lower greenhouse gas emissions
Alexander E. Farrell, Richard J. Plevin, Brian T. Turner, Andrew D. Jones, Michael O'Hare, and Daniel M. Kammen, “Ethanol Can Contribute to Energy and Environmental Goals,” Science 311, no. 5750 (January 27, 2006): 506-508. Available at http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/311/5760/506
p. 123 actually help to sequester carbon in the soil as they grow
Nathanael Greene, et al., Growing Energy: How Biofuels Can Help End America's Oil Dependence (Natural Resources Defense Council, December 2004): 29. Available at http://www.nrdc.org/air/energy/biofuels/biofuels.pdf
p. 123 recent data indicate that miscanthus... higher yields than switchgrass
L.R. Lynd, L.R., M.S. Laser, J. McBride, K. Podkaminer, and J. Hannon, “Energy Myth Three - High land requirements and an unfavorable energy balance preclude biomass ethanol from playing a large role in providing energy services,” in Energy and American Society: Thirteen Myths (B. Sovacool and M. Brown, eds.) (Springer, 2007): 86.
p. 123 feedstock plants flourish on land that is unsuitable for food crops
Lester Brown, “How Food and Fuel Compete for Land,” The Globalist, February 1, 2006. Available at http://www.theglobalist.com/StoryId.aspx?StoryId=5077
p. 123 most of these fuel crops require no petroleum-intensive fertilizers
Margaret Kriz, “Ethanol Fuels Environmental Conflicts,” The National Journal, March 28, 2009.
p. 123 both purposes can be served if the amount removed from the fields
Rattan Lal, “There Is No Such Thing as a Free Biofuel from Crop Residues,” CSA News 52, no. 5 (May 2007): 12-13.
p. 123 some farmers are now planting “energy crops” ... grown simultaneously
David Tilman, Robert Socolow, Jonathan A. Foley, Jason Hill, Eric Larson, Lee Lynd, Stephen Pacala, John Reilly, Tim Searchinger, Chris Somerville, and Robert Williams, “Beneficial Biofuelsâ The Food, Energy, and Environment Trilemma,” Science 325 (July 17, 2009): 270-271.
p. 123 fast-growing trees... coppicing... recarbonize the soil
Union of Concerned Scientists, “How Biomass Energy Works,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/technology_and_impacts/energy_technologies/how-biomass-energy-works.html
p. 124 could supply more than 350 million tons of cellulosic feedstock each year... consumption of gasoline and diesel
Robert D. Perlack, Lynn L. Wright, Anthony F. Turhollow, Robin L. Graham, Bryce J. Stokes, and Donald C. Erbach, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, April 2005): 35. Available at http://feedstockreview.ornl.gov/pdf/billion_ton_vision.pdf
p. 124 The National Renewable Energy Laboratory notes that
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Research Advances: Cellulosic Ethanol (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, March 2007). Available at http://www.nrel.gov/biomass/pdfs/40742.pdf
p. 124 These new techniques have generated opposition
Matthew Baldwin, John Peterson, and Bruce Stokes, Europe, America, Bush: Transatlantic Relations in the Twenty-First Century (2003): 42-3
p. 125 in 2008, 8 percent of all cultivated land in the world was planted with GM crops
Clive James, Brief 39: Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2008 (International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications 2008): 15. Available at http://www.isaaa.org/resources/publications/briefs/39/executivesummary/default.html
p. 125 there have been a few cases where genetic changes have caused unintended consequences
For example, see: Lewis Smith, “GM grass takes a walk on the wild side,” The Times, August 10, 2006. Available at http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/us_and_americas/article604820.ece
p. 125 thermochemical process to convert the cellulosic material into a syngas
Jane Earley and Alice McKeown, Red, White, and Green: Transforming U.S. Biofuels (Worldwatch Report 180, July 2009): 19. Available at http://www.worldwatch.org/node/6183
p. 125 How Biomass Becomes Biofuel [Graphic]
U.S. Department of Energy, “ABC's of Biofuels,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/abcs_biofuels.html
p. 126 The gas from this landfill in New Jersey helps power 25,000 local homes
David Porter, “New Jersey Landfills Capture The Methane They Produce, Turn It Into Energy,” The Huffington Post, October 26, 2008. Available at http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2008/10/27/new-jersey-landfills-capt_n_138076.html
p. 127 currently responsible for approximately 14 percent of global methane emissions
International Energy Agency, Turning a Liability into an Asset: the Importance of Policy in Fostering Landfill Gas Use Worldwide (International Energy Agency, January 2009): 4. Available at http://www.iea.org/papers/2009/landfill.pdf
p. 127 Methane accounts for the second largest volume of global warming pollution after CO2
D.T. Shindell, G. Faluvegi, D.M. Koch, G.A. Schmidt, N. Unger, and S.E. Bauer, “Improved attribution of climate forcing to emissions,” Science, in press, 2009.
p. 127 Each molecule is more than 20 times as powerful as a CO2 molecule
P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D.W. Fahey, J. Haywood, et al., “2007: Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing,” Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.)] (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA): 212. Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_wg1_report_the_physical_science_basis.htm
p. 127 Landfills are the third largest man-made source... mostly from leaks
International Energy Agency, Turning a Liability into an Asset: the Importance of Policy in Fostering Landfill Gas Use Worldwide (International Energy Agency, January 2009): 4. Available at http://www.iea.org/papers/2009/landfill.pdf
p. 127 typically half methane and half CO2
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Landfill Methane Outreach Program, “An Overview of Landfill Gas Energy in the United States” (slideshow), last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.epa.gov/lmop/docs/overview.pdf
p. 127 second largest source of man-made methane in the United States
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2007 (April 15, 2009): 8-1. Available at http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/usinventoryreport.html
p. 127 did not surpass the U.S. in household garbage until early 2009
Keith Bradsher, “China's Trash Problem May Also Be the World's,” The New York Times, August 12, 2009. Available at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9800E1DD113DF931A2575BC0A96F9C8B63
p. 127 the entire continent of Africa and more than two and a half times... China
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Global Mitigation of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (June 2006): III-1. Available at http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/economics/international.html
p. 127 amount of additional methane released from growing landfill volumes is increasing more rapidly
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2007 (April 15, 2009): 8-2. Available at http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/usinventoryreport.html
p. 127 a series of vertical extraction wells are drilled... collected and processed
Congressional Research Service, Methane Capture: Options for Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction, September 17, 2009. Available at http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/130799.pdf
p. 127 fleets of vehicles modified to run on landfill gas
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Landfill Methane Outreach Program, “An Overview of Landfill Gas Energy in the United States” (slideshow), last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.epa.gov/lmop/docs/overview.pdf
p. 127 Many developing countries dispose... smaller quantities of methane
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Global Mitigation of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (June 2006): III-3. Available at http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/economics/international.html
p. 127 liquid leachate that often contaminates underground water aquifers
International Energy Agency, Turning a Liability into an Asset: the Importance of Policy in Fostering Landfill Gas Use Worldwide (International Energy Agency, January 2009): 9. Available at http://www.iea.org/papers/2009/landfill.pdf
p. 127 In 1996, the United States enacted a Landfill Rule
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Global Mitigation of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (June 2006): III-5. Available at http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/economics/international.html
p. 127 Approximately 37 percent of U.S. landfills... instead of flaring it
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2007 (April 15, 2009): 8-1. Available at http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/usinventoryreport.html
p. 127 the BMW plant in Greer, South Carolina, meets 70 percent of its energy needs with landfill gas
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Landfill Methane Outreach Program, “An Overview of Landfill Gas Energy in the United States” (slideshow), last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.epa.gov/lmop/docs/overview.pdf
p. 128 saved $5 million in annual energy costs by using landfill gas
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Landfill Methane Outreach Program, “An Overview of Landfill Gas Energy in the United States” (slideshow), last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.epa.gov/lmop/docs/overview.pdf
p. 128 an international partnership, which now includes 30 countries
Methane to Markets, “Partner Countries,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.methanetomarkets.org/m2m2009/partners/index.aspx
p. 128 “For 21 years I never gave a thought... not very much”
Interview with Roy Anderson in The Corporation. Directed by Mark Achbar and Jennifer Abbott, 2003, Vancouver, B.C.: Big Picture Media Corporation.
p. 128 The way I had been running Interface
Interview with Roy Anderson in The Corporation. Directed by Mark Achbar and Jennifer Abbott, 2003, Vancouver, B.C.: Big Picture Media Corporation.
p. 128 5 billion pounds
Cristen Conger, “Can I Recycle My Carpet?” How Stuff Works, last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://home.howstuffworks.com/home-improvement/flooring/recycle-carpet.htm/printable
p. 128 more than 100 million pounds of materials
Peter Docherty, Mari Kira, and Abraham B. Shani, Creating Sustainable Work Systems, (Routledge, 2008): 47.
p. 128 to convert methane gas from the landfill
Interface, Inc., “Interface Flooring Systems uses Landfill Emissions to Power Plant,” press release, August 20, 2003. Available at http://www.ewire.com/display.cfm/Wire_ID/1715
p. 128 down 83 percent in absolute tonnage
Ray Anderson, “Ray Anderson on the business logic of sustainability,” TED Conference, February 2009. Available at http://www.ted.com/talks/ray_anderson_on_the_business_logic_of_sustainability.html
p. 129 90 percent of the biomass energy actually produced... heat and electricity
International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook: 2008 (International Energy Agency, 2008): 161. Available at http://www.iea.org/weo/2008.asp
p. 129 Researchers at the John F. Kennedy School of Government and the Stockholm Environment Institute concluded in 2007
Ambuj D. Sagar and Sivan Kartha, “Bioenergy and Sustainable Development?” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 32 (November 2007): 131-67.
p. 129 A team of researchers from Michigan State University... internal-combustion engines
John Ohlrogge, Doug Allen, Bill Berguson, Dean DellaPenna, Yair Shachar-Hill, and Sten Stymne, “Driving on Biomass,” Science 324 (May 22, 2009): 1019-10.
p. 129 conventional electricity-generating plants lose, on average, 65 percent of the energy in the fuels to wasted heat
John Ohlrogge, Doug Allen, Bill Berguson, Dean DellaPenna, Yair Shachar-Hill, and Sten Stymne, “Driving on Biomass,” Science 324 (May 22, 2009): 1019-10.
p. 129 displaces twice as much petroleum with biomass than when it is converted into liquid fuels
John Ohlrogge, Doug Allen, Bill Berguson, Dean DellaPenna, Yair Shachar-Hill, and Sten Stymne, “Driving on Biomass,” Science 324 (May 22, 2009): 1019-10.
p. 129 more than 60 percent of the energy contained in the biomass can be efficiently used
John Ohlrogge, Doug Allen, Bill Berguson, Dean DellaPenna, Yair Shachar-Hill, and Sten Stymne, “Driving on Biomass,” Science 324 (May 22, 2009): 1019-10.
p. 129 several airline companies are aggressively exploring the use of jet fuel made from biomass
Katie Howell, “Plant-derived fuels could be certified for flights within a year, says Boeing exec,” Greenwire, May 29, 2009. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/gwire/2009/05/29/29greenwire-plant-derived-fuels-could-be-certified-for-fli-24118.html
p. 129 new molecules (like biobutanol) that can be mixed directly with gasoline and diesel
U.S. Department of Energy, “Biobutanol,” last updated July 10, 2009. Available at http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/fuels/emerging_biobutanol.html
p. 129 In 2007, Royal Dutch Shell announced that it will build a pilot facility in Hawaii
Danny Fortson, “Shell starts algae biodiesel research site in Hawaii,” The Independent, December 12, 2007. Available at http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/shell-starts-algae-biodiesel-research-site-in-hawaii-764606.html
p. 129 Chevron announced a partnership to study algal fuels
David R. Baker, “Startup teams with Chevron on algae fuel,” San Francisco Chronicle, January 23, 2008. Available at http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/01/23/BU58UJRM3.DTL
p. 129 ExxonMobil announced a partnership with a company founded by genetics entrepreneur Craig Venter
Jad Mouawad, “Exxon to Invest Millions to Make Fuel From Algae,” The New York Times, July 13, 2009. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/14/business/energy-environment/14fuel.html
p. 130 can be grown in arid environments using brackish water, salt water, or polluted water
Jad Mouawad, “Exxon to Invest Millions to Make Fuel From Algae,” The New York Times, July 13, 2009. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/14/business/energy-environment/14fuel.html
p. 130 a cheaper source of renewable energy than solar electricity... onshore wind electricity
IHS-CERA, "Busbar Cost of New Generating Technologies, Renewables"
p. 130 The Natural Resources Defense Council concluded in a 2004 study
Nathanael Greene, et al., Growing Energy: How Biofuels Can Help End America's Oil Dependence (Natural Resources Defense Council, December 2004): 57-8. Available at http://www.nrdc.org/air/energy/biofuels/biofuels.pdf
p. 130 Slightly more than half of all biomass energy consumed... only 9 percent
Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review 2008 (U.S. Department of Energy June 2009): 283-89. Available at http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/pdf/aer.pdf
p. 130 In 2006, electricity generation from biomass... global production of renewable electricity
International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook: 2008 (International Energy Agency, 2008): 160. Available at http://www.iea.org/weo/2008.asp
p. 130 wood has a much lower energy density than coal
S. Ashton and P. Cassidy, “Energy Basics,” Sustainable Forestry for Bioenergy and Bio-based Products [W. Hubbard, L. Biles, C. Mayfield, and S. Ashton (eds.)] (2007): 189-90. Available at http://essmextension.tamu.edu/publications/files/forestry/ForestBioenergy/5-8.pdf
p. 130 displacing as much as 20 percent of the coal
Gerfried Jungmeier, “Contribution of Increased Pellets Use for Climate Protection,” Discussion Workshop: European Pellets Roadmap up to 2020 (Bruxelles, Belgium: Joanneum Research, June 26, 2008). Available at http://www.aebiom.org/IMG/pdf/Jungmeier__Joaneum.pdf
p. 130 According to a study by the Worldwatch Institute in 2009
Jane Earley and Alice McKeown, Red, White, and Green: Transforming U.S. Biofuels (Worldwatch Report 180, July 2009): 24. Available at http://www.worldwatch.org/node/6183
p. 131 can reduce CO2-equivalent emissions by as much as 94 percent
Gerfried Jungmeier, “Contribution of Increased Pellets Use for Climate Protection,” Discussion Workshop: European Pellets Roadmap up to 2020 (Bruxelles, Belgium: Joanneum Research, June 26, 2008). Available at http://www.aebiom.org/IMG/pdf/Jungmeier__Joaneum.pdf
p. 131 plans to build a dedicated 295-megawatt advanced biomass generator
“UK firm to build 295 MW biomass plant,” Biomass Magazine, July 15, 2009. Available at http://www.biomassmagazine.com/article.jsp?article_id=2870
p. 131 intention to require that these dedicated biomass plants use carbon capture and sequestration starting in 2030
“The UK Plans a Huge Expansion in Biomass Power Capacity,” Forest Energy Monitor, May 2009. Available at http://www.forestenergymonitor.com/current_issue/free/UK_biomass_elec_invest_may09.html

Department of Energy and Climate Change, “No new coal without CCS - Miliband,” press release, April 23, 2009. Available at http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/news/pn050/pn050.aspx
p. 131 has also developed integrated biorefineries
Department of Energy, “Integrated Biorefineries,” last updated May 5, 2008. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/integrated_biorefineries.html
p. 131 largest market for biomass production of electricity and heat from wood pellets is in Europe
Russell Gold, “Wood Pellets Catch Fire as Renewable Energy Source,” The Wall Street Journal, July 7, 2009. Available at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124691728110402383.html
p. 131 the pellets coming mainly from suppliers... southeastern United States
Russell Gold, “Wood Pellets Catch Fire as Renewable Energy Source,” The Wall Street Journal, July 7, 2009. Available at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124691728110402383.html

New Energy Finance, “Biomass & Waste-to-Energy Insight Service Half Yearly Conference Call,” May 14, 2009 (slideshow)
p. 131 an acre of algae could produce 5,000 gallons of biofuel a year
“A vertically integrated, scaleable 5,000 gallon/acre algae fuel system,” Bifuels Digest, February 25, 2009. Available at http://www.biofuelsdigest.com/blog2/2009/02/25/a-vertically-integrated-scaleable-licensable-5-6000-gallon-per-acre-algae-to-energy-production-system-a-biofuels-digest-special-report-on-petroalgae/
p. 132 accounts for two thirds of the renewable energy being produced
European Biomass Association, “Biomass News,” AEBIOM News, no. 15, April 2009. Available at http://www.aebiom.org/IMG/pdf/Biomass15lljApril15.pdf
p. 132 According to the consulting group New Energy Finance
Irmgard Herold, “Biomass & Waste-to-Energy Investment Trends” (New Energy Finance, slideshow), July 1, 2009. Available at http://www.eubia.org/uploads/media/NEF_B_WtE_Investment_trends_01.pdf
p. 132 a process called torrefaction
“Biofuels: Process Used to Roast Coffee Beans May Give Biomass a Powerful Boost,” Science Daily, May 21, 2008. Available at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/05/080521102826.htm
p. 132 a process known as pyrolysis
FRTR, “4.24 Pyrolysis,” Remediation Technologies Screening Matrix and Reference Guide, Version 4.0. Available at http://www.frtr.gov/matrix2/section4/4-25.html
p. 132 In 2009, a remarkable analysis published in Science magazine... investors in first generation biofuels
David Tilman, Robert Socolow, Jonathan A. Foley, Jason Hill, Eric Larson, Lee Lynd, Stephen Pacala, John Reilly, Tim Searchinger, Chris Somerville, and Robert Williams, “Beneficial Biofuels: The Food, Energy, and Environment Trilemma,” Science 325 (July 17, 2009): 270-271
p. 132 all based on standards designed to address... production of cellulosic bioenergy
Council on Sustainable Biomass Production, “Challenges for Sustainable Second Generation Biofuels,” presentation at Biomass 2009 in Washington, DC, March 17, 2009. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/pdfs/Biomass_2009_Sustainability_I_Jacobs.pdf
p. 132 now requires producers to apply for Renewable Obligation Certificates... they plan to use
U.K. Office of Gas and Electricity Markets, Renewable Obligation: Fuel measurement and sampling guidance (Ofgem, March 27, 2009): 12-17. Available at http://www.ofgem.gov.uk/Sustainability/Environment/RenewablObl/Documents1/FMS%20final.pdf