“The amount of geothermal energy potentially available is, in the words of U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu, ‘effectively unlimited.’”

Our Sources Of Energy

Chapter Five

Soaking Up Geothermal Energy

p. 94 in the words of U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu, “effectively unlimited.”
Google.org, “Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS)” video clip, August 18, 2008, www.Youtube.com, last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O6r_3AgI49Y
p. 94 the only supplies were the small amounts found exposed
Richard Heinberg, The Party's Over: Oil, War and the Fate of Industrial Societies (British Columbia: New Society Publishers, 2003): 57.
p. 94 the first underground coal mines were dug in the 17th century
Richard Heinberg, The Party's Over: Oil, War and the Fate of Industrial Societies (British Columbia: New Society Publishers, 2003): 53.
p. 94 the first oil well was drilled in 1859
Richard Heinberg, The Party's Over: Oil, War and the Fate of Industrial Societies (British Columbia: New Society Publishers, 2003): 57.
p. 94 According to the U.N. World Energy Assessment Report, the geothermal resource
José Goldemberg (ed.), “Chapter 5: Energy Resources,” World Energy Assessment: Energy and the Challenge of Sustainability (New York: United Nations Development Programme, 2000): 168. Available at http://www.undp.org/energy/activities/wea/drafts-frame.html

Note:
Calculation based on “Theoretical Potential” of geothermal energy in Table 5.26 of the U.N. Report and annual world energy use of 472.4 quadrillion btu from: Energy Information Administration, International Energy Outlook 2009 (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy, May 2009): 203. Available at http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/pdf/0484(2009).pdf
p. 94 according to two other experts, Bruce Green and Gerald Nix
Bruce D. Green and R. Gerald Nix, “Geothermal‚ The Energy Under Our Feet: Geothermal Resource Estimates for the United States,” Technical Report (National Renewable Energy Laboratory: NREL/TP-840-40665, November 2006): 3. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy07osti/40665.pdf
p. 94 The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in a major assessment of geothermal power in 2006
Jefferson W. Tester, Brian J. Anderson, Anthony Stephen Batchelor, David D. Blackwell, Ronald DiPippo, Elisabeth M. Drake, John Garnish, et al., The Future of Geothermal Energy: Impact of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) on the United States in the 21st Century (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006): 1-4. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/future_geothermal.html

Note:
The quotes should begin with “extractable,” not “technically.”
p. 95 geothermal energy has virtually no CO2 emissions
Jefferson W. Tester, Brian J. Anderson, Anthony Stephen Batchelor, David D. Blackwell, Ronald DiPippo, Elisabeth M. Drake, John Garnish, et al., The Future of Geothermal Energy: Impact of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) on the United States in the 21st Century (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006): 1-4. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/future_geothermal.html
p. 95 the smallest environmental “footprint” on the surface
Mark Z. Jacobson, “Review of solutions to global warming, air pollution, and energy security,” Energy & Environmental Science 2 (2009): 148-173. Available at http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/PDF%20files/ReviewSolGW09.pdf
p. 95 the parts of the earth where the temperature beneath the surface gets hottest
Jefferson W. Tester, Brian J. Anderson, Anthony Stephen Batchelor, David D. Blackwell, Ronald DiPippo, Elisabeth M. Drake, John Garnish, et al., The Future of Geothermal Energy: Impact of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) on the United States in the 21st Century (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006): 1-10. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/future_geothermal.html
p. 95 The Earth's Hot Zones [Graphic]
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, “Bringing Tsunami Forecasting into the 21st Century with Models and DARTS,” NOAA Celebrates 200 Years, last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://celebrating200years.noaa.gov/magazine/dart_buoys/welcome.html

Jonathan T. Hagstrum, “Antipodal hotspots and bipolar catastrophes: Were oceanic large-body impacts the cause?” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 236 (2005): 13-27. Available at http://www.mantleplumes.org/WebDocuments/Antip_hot.pdf
p. 98 Scientists have located approximately 45 of these primary hot spots on the surface of the earth.
Jonathan T. Hagstrum, “Antipodal hotspots and bipolar catastrophes: Were oceanic large-body impacts the cause?” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 236 (2005): 13-27. Available at http://www.mantleplumes.org/WebDocuments/Antip_hot.pdf
p. 98 first in 1904 at a site near Larderello, Italy
John W. Lund, “100 Years of Geothermal Power Production,” GHC Bulletin (September 2004): 11. Available at http://geoheat.oit.edu/bulletin/bull25-3/art2.pdf
p. 98 the Larderello field produces about 400 megawatts of baseload electricity
International Geothermal Association, “Welcome to our page with data for Italy,” last updated March 24, 2009. Available at http://www.geothermal-energy.org/164,welcome_to_our_page_with_data_for_italy.html

Note:
According to data from the International Geothermal Association, the Larderello site has 543MW of installed capacity.
p. 98 The Origin of Hot Spots [Sidebar]
Jonathan T. Hagstrum, “Antipodal hotspots and bipolar catastrophes: Were oceanic large-body impacts the cause?” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 236 (2005): 13-27. Available at http://www.mantleplumes.org/WebDocuments/Antip_hot.pdf
p. 100 the total global generating capacity from geothermal energy resources
Ruggero Bertani, “World Geothermal Generation in 2007,” GHC Bulletin (September 2007): 9. Available at http://geoheat.oit.edu/bulletin/bull28-3/art3.pdf
p. 100 60 percent of the average electricity used in California's North Coast region
Christopher Mims, “Slide Show: The World's 10 Largest Renewable Energy Projects,” Scientific American, June 4, 2009. Available at http://www.scientificamerican.com/slideshow.cfm?id=10-largest-renewable-energy-projects&photo_id=ACAC0F33-06D1-AA4E-AE6C594966A1D67A
p. 100 The Geysers had a peak production of more than 2,000 megawatts in 1987
Calpine Corporation, “History - The Geysers,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.geysers.com/history.htm
p. 100 There are actually 22 separate sites
Calpine Corporation, “About Geothermal Energy,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.geysers.com/geothermal.htm
p. 100 they still constitute the largest such system in the world
Christopher Mims, “Slide Show: The World's 10 Largest Renewable Energy Projects,” Scientific American, June 4, 2009. Available at http://www.scientificamerican.com/slideshow.cfm?id=10-largest-renewable-energy-projects&photo_id=ACAC0F33-06D1-AA4E-AE6C594966A1D67A
p. 100 a new hydrothermal plant now proposed for Sarulla in North Sumatra, Indonesia
Christopher Mims, “Slide Show: The World's 10 Largest Renewable Energy Projects,” Scientific American, June 4, 2009. Available at http://www.scientificamerican.com/slideshow.cfm?id=10-largest-renewable-energy-projects&photo_id=ACAC0F33-06D1-AA4E-AE6C594966A1D67A
p. 100 temperatures in excess of 300°F to 400°F
Jefferson W. Tester, Brian J. Anderson, Anthony Stephen Batchelor, David D. Blackwell, Ronald DiPippo, Elisabeth M. Drake, John Garnish, et al., The Future of Geothermal Energy: Impact of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) on the United States in the 21st Century (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006): 1-15. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/future_geothermal.html
p. 102 flow paths are created by opening existing sealed fractures
Jefferson W. Tester, Brian J. Anderson, Anthony Stephen Batchelor, David D. Blackwell, Ronald DiPippo, Elisabeth M. Drake, John Garnish, et al., The Future of Geothermal Energy: Impact of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) on the United States in the 21st Century (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006): 1-21. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/future_geothermal.html
p. 102 “hydrofracturing and stimulation”
Bruce D. Green and R. Gerald Nix, “Geothermal‚ The Energy Under Our Feet: Geothermal Resource Estimates for the United States,” Technical Report (National Renewable Energy Laboratory: NREL/TP-840-40665, November 2006): 5. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy07osti/40665.pdf
p. 102 around 5 percent of the water is lost to permeation
Susan Petty, “Engineering Geothermal Systems To Impact Global Climate Change”, Solutions Summit, January 8, 2008.
p. 102 Some operators now claim to have reduced the loss to zero
Susan Petty, “Engineering Geothermal Systems To Impact Global Climate Change”, Solutions Summit, January 8, 2008.
p. 102 one of the alternative working fluids under consideration... is supercritical CO2
Karsten Pruess, “Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Comparing Water and CO2 as Heat Transmission Fluids,” Proceedings, New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 2007 (LBNL-63627, Auckland, New Zealand: November 19-21, 2007). Available at http://www.lbl.gov/tt/publications/2500pub.pdf
p. 103 Geothermal Resources in the United States [Graphic]
Jefferson W. Tester, Brian J. Anderson, Anthony Stephen Batchelor, David D. Blackwell, Ronald DiPippo, Elisabeth M. Drake, John Garnish, et al., The Future of Geothermal Energy: Impact of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) on the United States in the 21st Century (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006): 1-14. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/future_geothermal.html
p. 105 the injection of pressurized water into rock formations... minor seismic events
Jefferson W. Tester, Brian J. Anderson, Anthony Stephen Batchelor, David D. Blackwell, Ronald DiPippo, Elisabeth M. Drake, John Garnish, et al., The Future of Geothermal Energy: Impact of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) on the United States in the 21st Century (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006): 5-8. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/future_geothermal.html
p. 105 Inside the Earth [Sidebar]
NASA, “World Book at NASA,” last accessed October 13, 2009. Available at http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/earth_worldbook.html

Louie, J., “Earth's Interior” (Nevada Seismological Lab: October 10, 1996). Available at http://www.seismo.unr.edu/ftp/pub/louie/class/100/interior.html

USGS, “Inside the Earth,” last updated May 5, 1999. Available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/inside.html

Jefferson W. Tester, Brian J. Anderson, Anthony Stephen Batchelor, David D. Blackwell, Ronald DiPippo, Elisabeth M. Drake, John Garnish, et al., The Future of Geothermal Energy: Impact of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) on the United States in the 21st Century (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006): 1-9. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/future_geothermal.html

Bruce D. Green and R. Gerald Nix, “Geothermal‚ The Energy Under Our Feet: Geothermal Resource Estimates for the United States,” Technical Report (National Renewable Energy Laboratory: NREL/TP-840-40665, November 2006): 3. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy07osti/40665.pdf

Note:
According to NASA, the “superheated solid iron core” is 1,600 miles in diameter. This makes “the overall diameter of the inner and outer core combined” approximately 4,400 miles.
p. 107 drilled into a known faulted region... triggered a magnitude 3.4 earthquake
Katherine Harmon, “How Does Geothermal Drilling Trigger Earthquakes?” Scientific American, June 29, 2009. Available at http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=geothermal-drilling-earthquakes
p. 107 the first EGS experiment at Fenton Hill, New Mexico
Jefferson W. Tester, Brian J. Anderson, Anthony Stephen Batchelor, David D. Blackwell, Ronald DiPippo, Elisabeth M. Drake, John Garnish, et al., The Future of Geothermal Energy: Impact of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) on the United States in the 21st Century (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006): 4-3. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/future_geothermal.html
p. 107 A single drill hole... can cost $5 million or more
“More geothermal power from the Geysers,” Energy Magazine. Available at http://www.altenerg.com/back_issues/index.php?content_id=66
p. 108 the Bush-Cheney administration cut the budget for geothermal energy
Kent Garber, “In the Push for Alternative Energy, What Happened to Geothermal?” U.S. News and World Report, July 21, 2008. Available at http://www.usnews.com/articles/news/national/2008/07/21/in-the-push-for-alternative-energy-what-happened-to-geothermal.html
p. 109 the major study of EGS at M.I.T. concluded
Jefferson W. Tester, Brian J. Anderson, Anthony Stephen Batchelor, David D. Blackwell, Ronald DiPippo, Elisabeth M. Drake, John Garnish, et al., The Future of Geothermal Energy: Impact of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) on the United States in the 21st Century (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006): 1-8. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/future_geothermal.html
p. 109 Since 2008, both research-and-development funding and the geothermal tax credit have been belatedly renewed
Scott Streater, “Geothermal, the 'undervalued' renewable resource, sees surging interest,” Greenwire, May 21, 2009. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/gwire/2009/05/21/21greenwire-geothermal-the-undervalued-renewable-resource-12208.html?pagewanted=all

Union of Concerned Scientists, “Production Tax Credit for Renewable Energy,” last updated April 22, 2009. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/solutions/big_picture_solutions/production-tax-credit-for.html
p. 109 a small EGS demonstration project is now under way at Desert Peak, Nevada
“DOE & National Laboratories Project Targets Commercial Viability for Enhanced Geothermal Systems,” press release, February 14, 2008. Available at http://www.reuters.com/article/pressRelease/idUS245936+14-Feb-2008+PRN20080214
p. 109 In fact, if EGS technology could be perfected to depths of six kilometers
Note:
This statement should read: “In fact, if EGS technology could be perfected to depths of ten kilometers, then virtually the entire United States would be available for geothermal power generation.”
p. 109 somewhat lower-temperature rocks... can be used for geothermal power applied to the heating of buildings directly
Jefferson W. Tester, interview with author, August 7, 2009.
p. 109 the first geothermal district heating system in Boise, Idaho, over 100 years ago
Idaho Office of Energy Resources, “District Heating,” last updated May 6, 2009. Available at http://www.energy.idaho.gov/renewableenergy/district_heating.shtml
p. 109 the state capitol and many other buildings in Boise are heated with geothermal hot water
Idaho Office of Energy Resources, “District Heating,” last updated May 6, 2009. Available at http://www.energy.idaho.gov/renewableenergy/district_heating.shtml
p. 109 In Klamath Falls, Oregon, heat from geothermal wells
U.S. Department of Energy, “Geothermal Technologies Program: Oregon” (DOE/GO-102004-2036: February 2005). Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy05osti/36550.pdf
p. 109 since Iceland responded to the oil shocks of the 1970s... tectonically active land
Christopher Mims, “One Hot Island: Iceland's Renewable Geothermal Power,” Scientific American, October 20, 2008. Available at http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=iceland-geothermal-power
p. 109 The European Union has an EGS project under way in Soultz-sous-Forêts, France
Jefferson W. Tester, Brian J. Anderson, Anthony Stephen Batchelor, David D. Blackwell, Ronald DiPippo, Elisabeth M. Drake, John Garnish, et al., The Future of Geothermal Energy: Impact of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) on the United States in the 21st Century (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006): 4-26-31. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/future_geothermal.html
p. 109 Other projects are under way in... and elsewhere
List of projects, including Germany and the U.K.:
Jefferson W. Tester, Brian J. Anderson, Anthony Stephen Batchelor, David D. Blackwell, Ronald DiPippo, Elisabeth M. Drake, John Garnish, et al., The Future of Geothermal Energy: Impact of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) on the United States in the 21st Century (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006): 4-4. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/future_geothermal.html

Switzerland:
Swiss Federal Office of Energy, “Geothermal Energy,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.bfe.admin.ch/themen/00490/00501/index.html?lang=en

Czech Republic:
Lenka Ponikelska, “CEZ Plans First Geothermal Plant in Renewable-Energy Expansion,” Bloomberg, February 4, 2009. Available at http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601095&sid=adt50zdY_FUY
p. 109 in Australia... seven publicly traded companies are now actively pursuing and developing EGS opportunities
Activated Logic, “Australia's Geothermal Energy Rush,” press release, June 4, 2009. Available at http://activatedlogic.com.au/pressreleases/Geothermal%20Media%20Release%20June%202009.pdf
p. 110 The Philippines, El Salvador, and Costa Rica have all recently achieved the production... so have Kenya and Iceland... New Zealand, Indonesia, Nicaragua, and the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe
Ingvar B. Fridleifsson, Ruggero Bertani, Ernst Huenges, John W. Lund, Arni Ragnarsson, and Ladislaus Rybach, “The possible role and contribution of geothermal energy to the mitigation of climate change,” IPCC Geothermal, February 11, 2008. Available at http://iga.igg.cnr.it/documenti/IGA/Fridleifsson_et_al_IPCC_Geothermal_paper_2008.pdf
p. 110 the “coproduction” of hot water from some oil and gas wells
Bruce D. Green and R. Gerald Nix, “Geothermal‚ The Energy Under Our Feet: Geothermal Resource Estimates for the United States,” Technical Report (National Renewable Energy Laboratory: NREL/TP-840-40665, November 2006): 8. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy07osti/40665.pdf

Jefferson W. Tester, Brian J. Anderson, Anthony Stephen Batchelor, David D. Blackwell, Ronald DiPippo, Elisabeth M. Drake, John Garnish, et al., The Future of Geothermal Energy: Impact of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) on the United States in the 21st Century (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006): 2-28-35. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/future_geothermal.html
p. 110 deep reservoirs of high-pressure hot water sometimes contain dissolved methane
Bruce D. Green and R. Gerald Nix, “Geothermal‚ The Energy Under Our Feet: Geothermal Resource Estimates for the United States,” Technical Report (National Renewable Energy Laboratory: NREL/TP-840-40665, November 2006): 8. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy07osti/40665.pdf

Jefferson W. Tester, Brian J. Anderson, Anthony Stephen Batchelor, David D. Blackwell, Ronald DiPippo, Elisabeth M. Drake, John Garnish, et al., The Future of Geothermal Energy: Impact of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) on the United States in the 21st Century (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006): 2-28-35. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/future_geothermal.html
p. 110 In the U.S., this resource is heavily concentrated
Raymond Fortuna and Allan Jelacic, “The Geopressured-Geothermal Research Program: An Overview,” Proceedings of the Natural Gas R&D Contractors Review Meeting (DOE/METC-89/6103, U.S. Department of Energy: April 1, 1989). Available at http://www.osti.gov/bridge/product.biblio.jsp?osti_id=896394
p. 110 could provide and estimated 1,000 gigawatts of energy in the United States alone
Bruce D. Green and R. Gerald Nix, “Geothermal‚ The Energy Under Our Feet: Geothermal Resource Estimates for the United States,” Technical Report (National Renewable Energy Laboratory: NREL/TP-840-40665, November 2006): 9-10. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy07osti/40665.pdf
p. 110 the earth's temperature averages approximately 59°F
Andrew C. Revkin, “The Two-Degree Solution,” Dot Earth, July 9, 2009. Available at http://dotearth.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/07/09/the-two-degree-solution/
p. 110 conventional, refrigerant-based vapor compression units to transfer heat
U.S. Department of Energy, “Geothermal Heat Pumps,” last updated July 7, 2009. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/heatpumps.html
p. 110 four times more efficient
Jefferson W. Tester, Brian J. Anderson, Anthony Stephen Batchelor, David D. Blackwell, Ronald DiPippo, Elisabeth M. Drake, John Garnish, et al., The Future of Geothermal Energy: Impact of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) on the United States in the 21st Century (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006): 1-15-16. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/future_geothermal.html
p. 110 There are federal tax breaks (and some state tax benefits) for purchasing and using geothermal heat pumps
U.S. Department of Energy, “Consumer Energy Tax Incentives,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.energy.gov/taxbreaks.htm
p. 111 often produce savings of more than 60 percent in heating and cooling bills
Jefferson W. Tester, Brian J. Anderson, Anthony Stephen Batchelor, David D. Blackwell, Ronald DiPippo, Elisabeth M. Drake, John Garnish, et al., The Future of Geothermal Energy: Impact of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) on the United States in the 21st Century (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006): 1-16. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/future_geothermal.html.

U.S. Department of Energy, “Benefits of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems,” last updated December 30, 2008. Available at http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/space_heating_cooling/index.cfm/mytopic=12660