“As the world moves toward putting a price on carbon … wind is positioned to continue its rapid growth as a major source of electricity for the world.”

Our Sources Of Energy

Chapter Four

Harvesting The Wind

p. 78 Wind is actually another form of the sun's energy
Crosby, Alfred W., Children of the Sun: A History of Humanity's Unappeasable Appetite for Energy (W.W. Norton & Co.: 2006): 48.
p. 78 more than the 15 miles per hour necessary
Christina L. Archer and Mark Z. Jacobson, “Evaluation of global wind power,” Journal of Geophysical Research 110 (June 30, 2005). Available at http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/winds/2004jd005462.pdf
p. 78 earth's wind resource... could technically provide five times the total energy
Xi Lu, Michael B. McElroy, and Juha Kiviluoma, “Global potential for wind-generated electricity,” PNAS Early Edition (June 22, 2009). Available at http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2009/06/19/0904101106.full.pdf
p. 78 wind power available in the United States... could technically provide 10 times the amount
Xi Lu, Michael B. McElroy, and Juha Kiviluoma, “Global potential for wind-generated electricity,” PNAS Early Edition (June 22, 2009). Available at http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2009/06/19/0904101106.full.pdf
p. 78 In each of the past two years, wind power has been the greatest source... combined
Energy Information Administration, “Electric Power Industry 2007: Year in Review,” Electric Power Annual, January 21, 2009. Available at http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.html

Global Wind Energy Council, “United States,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.gwec.net/index.php?id=121
p. 78 in 2008, the United States led the world
Global Wind Energy Council, “US and China in race to the top of global wind industry,” February 2, 2009. Available at http://www.gwec.net/index.php?id=30&no_cache=1&tx_ttnews[pointer]=5&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=177&tx_ttnews[backPid]=97&cHash=3ff2d4b918
p. 78 the United States is in first place... new windmills added in 2008
Global Wind Energy Council, “US and China in race to the top of global wind industry,” February 2, 2009. Available at http://www.gwec.net/index.php?id=30&no_cache=1&tx_ttnews[pointer]=5&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=177&tx_ttnews[backPid]=97&cHash=3ff2d4b918
p. 78 Denmark... now gets more than 21 percent
European Wind Energy Association, Pure Power: Wind Energy Scenarios up to 2030 (March 2008): 20. Available at http://www.ewea.org/fileadmin/ewea_documents/documents/00_POLICY_document/PP.pdf
p. 80 Denmark's first modern commercial-scale windmill
Soren Krohn, “Danish Wind Turbines: An Industrial Success Story” (2002). Available at http://www.talentfactory.dk/media(483,1033)/Danish_Wind_Turbine_Industry,_an_industrial_succes_story.pdf

European Wind Energy Association, Wind Energy - The Facts: Volume 1 (2003): 8. Available at http://www.ewea.org/index.php?id=91
p. 80 Germany and Spain both get more than 5 percent
European Wind Energy Association, Pure Power: Wind Energy Scenarios up to 2030 (March 2008): 20. Available at http://www.ewea.org/fileadmin/ewea_documents/documents/00_POLICY_document/PP.pdf
p. 80 The typical commercial-size windmill
American Wind Energy Association, Annual Wind Industry Report: Year Ending 2008 (2009): 15. Available at http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/AWEA-Annual-Wind-Report-2009.pdf
p. 80 The most popular turbine engine produces
American Wind Energy Association, Annual Wind Industry Report: Year Ending 2008 (2009): 15. Available at http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/AWEA-Annual-Wind-Report-2009.pdf
p. 80 enough to supply all of the electricity needed
This assumes a 30% capacity factor for a 1.5MW wind turbine and annual average household electricity use of 11,232 kWh.

Capacity Factor:
Renewable Energy Research Laboratory, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, “Wind Power: Capacity Factor, Intermittency, and what happens when the wind doesn't blow?,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.ceere.org/rerl/about_wind/RERL_Fact_Sheet_2a_Capacity_Factor.pdf
(This study says typical wind capacity factors are 20-40%. We use the mid-range.)

Average Household Electricity Use:
Energy Information Administration, “Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price 2007” (January 2009). Available at http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/esr/esr_sum.html
(Table 5 shows that U.S. average monthly household electricity consumption is 936 kWh.)
p. 80 The blades of modern windmills are designed according to a principle
“Can We Harness Pollution-Free Electric Power From Windmills?” Popular Science, November 1972: 70-1.
p. 80 Global Wind Energy Production [Graphic]
Global Wind Energy Council, “US and China in race to the top of global wind industry,” February 2, 2009. Available at http://www.gwec.net/index.php?id=30&no_cache=1&tx_ttnews[pointer]=5&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=177&tx_ttnews[backPid]=97&cHash=3ff2d4b918
p. 84 Tens of thousands of new jobs
American Wind Energy Association, Annual Wind Industry Report: Year Ending 2008 (2009): 17. Available at http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/AWEA-Annual-Wind-Report-2009.pdf
p. 84 Cardinal Fastener in Bedford Heights, Ohio
Keith Schneider, “Cardinal Fastener Bolts to Clean Energy Profit,” Apollo News Service, March 7, 2009. Available at http://apolloalliance.org/made-in-america/signature-stories-made-in-america/cardinal-fastener-bolts-to-clean-energy-profit/
p. 84 windmills can be built and installed within two months
European Wind Energy Association, Wind Power Technology, last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.ewea.org/fileadmin/ewea_documents/documents/publications/factsheets/factsheet_technology2.pdf
p. 84 Wind power uses less land than any other renewable-energy option
Mark Z. Jacobson, “Review of solutions to global warming, air pollution, and energy security,” Energy & Environmental Science 2 (2009): 148-173. Available at http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/PDF%20files/ReviewSolGW09.pdf
p. 84 Are Windmills a Threat to Birds? [Sidebar]
Wallace P. Erickson, Gregory D. Johnson, and David P. Young Jr., “A Summary and Comparison of Bird Mortality from Anthropogenic Causes with an Emphasis on Collisions,” U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service General Technology REport PSW-GTR-191 (2005): 1029-1042. Available at http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/psw_gtr191/Asilomar/pdfs/1029-1042.pdf

Cagan H. Sekercioglu, Stephen H. Schneider, John P. Fay, and Scott R. Loarie, “Climate Change, Elevational Range Shifts, and Bird Extinctions,” Conservation Biology 22, no. 1 (2008): 140-150. Available at http://www.stanford.edu/~cagan/2008%20Sekercioglu%20Con%20Bio.pdf
p. 86 the proposed location of a large wind farm in a carbon-rich peat bog on the Shetland Islands
Jenny Haworth, “Wind farm may release more CO2 than it saves,” The Scotsman, July 25, 2009. Available at http://news.scotsman.com/scotland/39Wind-farm-may-release-more.5493141.jp
p. 86 some wind entrepreneurs believe that many oil platforms
“Inherit the Wind,” Wired, February 2007. Available at http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/15.02/wind.html
p. 86 Two companies, StatoilHydro in Norway and Siemens in Germany
StatoilHydro, “StatoilHydro to build first full scale offshore floating wind turbine,” Press Release, May 22, 2008. Available at http://www.statoilhydro.com/en/NewsAndMedia/News/2008/Pages/hywind_fullscale.aspx
p. 86 transmission cables buried under the ocean bottom
Mukund R. Patel, Wind and Solar Power Systems: Design, Analysis, and Operation (2006): 127.
p. 86 Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Ireland, the Netherlands, and China are all beginning to use
BWEA, “Offshore Wind,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.bwea.com/offshore/worldwide.html

Lu Feiran, “First of 34 wind turbines is put up,” Shanghai Daily, March 25, 2009. Available at http://www.shanghaidaily.com/sp/article/2009/200903/20090325/article_395356.htm
p. 86 Multiple projects are in the development stage in the United States
American Wind Energy Association, Annual Wind Industry Report: Year Ending 2008 (2009): 14. Available at http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/AWEA-Annual-Wind-Report-2009.pdf
p. 86 the world's largest offshore wind farm... Lynn and Inner Dowsing... peak generation
Christopher Mims, “Slide Show: The World's 10 Largest Renewable Energy Projects,” Scientific American, June 4, 2009. Available at http://www.scientificamerican.com/slideshow.cfm?id=10-largest-renewable-energy-projects&photo_id=ACAC0F1A-FEF4-0675-B2ECD36FB1D91019

Power-Technology.com, “Lynn and Inner Dowsing Offshore Wind Farms, United Kingdom,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.power-technology.com/projects/lynnandinnerdowsing/
p. 86 The United Kingdom is also constructing... in the outer Thames Estuary
Christopher Mims, “Slide Show: The World's 10 Largest Renewable Energy Projects,” Scientific American, June 4, 2009. Available at http://www.scientificamerican.com/slideshow.cfm?id=10-largest-renewable-energy-projects&photo_id=ACAC0F1A-FEF4-0675-B2ECD36FB1D91019

Roger Milne, “Giant offshore windfarm proposed for Thames Estuary,” Planning Portal, June 9, 2005. Available at http://www.planningportal.gov.uk/england/professionals/en/1115311769789.html
p. 86 In early 2010, Denmark will start operating... Horns Rev 2... North Sea
Christopher Mims, “Slide Show: The World's 10 Largest Renewable Energy Projects,” Scientific American, June 4, 2009. Available at http://www.scientificamerican.com/slideshow.cfm?id=10-largest-renewable-energy-projects&photo_id=ACAC0F1A-FEF4-0675-B2ECD36FB1D91019

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, “Horns Rev 2 offshore wind farm to be inaugurated in September,” July 21, 2009. Available at http://www.denmark.dk/en/servicemenu/News/Environment-Energy-Climate-News/HornsRev2OffshoreWindFarmToBeInauguratedInSeptember.htm
p. 86 Wind has been used... 5,000 years ago
Iowa Energy Center, “A History of Wind Energy,” Wind Energy Manual. Available at http://www.energy.iastate.edu/renewable/wind/wem/history.htm
p. 86 Most historians give Persia credit... among other purposes
Thomas Ackerman, Wind power in power systems (John Wiley & Sons, 2005): 8-9.

John M. Hobson, The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation (Cambridge University Press, 2004): 127-8.

Abbott Payson Usher, A History of Mechanical Inventions, Volume 15 (Dover, 1988): 172-3.
p. 86 hundreds of thousands of windmills in Europe and as many as 500,000 in China

Paul Gipe, Wind Energy Comes of Age (John Wiley & Sons, 1995): 118, 405.

Erich Hau, Wind Turbines: Fundamentals, Technologies, Application, Economics (2nd edition) (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2006): 13.
p. 86 In the early 20th century, they were used... in some rural areas
Thomas Ackerman, Wind power in power systems (John Wiley & Sons, 2005): 8-9.
p. 87 The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind [Sidebar]
Narrative based on William Kamkwamba and Bryan Mealer, The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind (William Morrow, 2009).
p. 88 in the U.S., where many of the key technologies... first developed... President Jimmy Carter
Joshua Green, “The Elusive Green Economy,” The Atlantic, July/August 2009. Available at http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200907/carter-obama-energy
p. 88 Any noise... is difficult to hear
American Wind Energy Association, “Utility Scale Wind Energy and Sound,” last updated March, 2009. Available at http://www.awea.org/pubs/factsheets/Utility_Scale_Wind_Energy_Sound.pdf
p. 88 85 percent of the world's wind energy was being used in the United States
Joseph Romm, “Winds of Change,” Salon, May 17, 2008. Available at http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2008/05/17/wind_power/
p. 88 80 percent reduction in renewable energy programs
Joseph Romm, “Winds of Change,” Salon, May 17, 2008. Available at http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2008/05/17/wind_power/
p. 88 The Clinton-Gore administration renewed incentives
Joshua Green, “The Elusive Green Economy,” The Atlantic, July/August 2009. Available at: http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200907/carter-obama-energy
p. 88 Several times, the tax credit... has been allowed to expire... only two years
Joshua Green, “The Elusive Green Economy,” The Atlantic, July/August 2009. Available at http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200907/carter-obama-energy
p. 88 half of them are now purchased from foreign manufacturers
American Wind Energy Association, Annual Wind Industry Report: Year Ending 2008 (2009): 10. Available at http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/AWEA-Annual-Wind-Report-2009.pdf
p. 88 of the 10 leading wind-technology companies in the world, only one...
Emerging Energy Research, “2008 Wind Turbine Market Share: Record Global Demand and Seller's Market Lift Established and Emerging Suppliers,” Press Release, February 27, 2009. Available at http://www.emerging-energy.com/news/PressRelease.aspx?id=34
p. 88 several states... filled the policy vacuum
Joshua Green, “The Elusive Green Economy,” The Atlantic, July/August 2009. Available at http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200907/carter-obama-energy
p. 88 Texas... is actually the leader in installed wind capacity... Iowa and California...
American Wind Energy Association, Annual Wind Industry Report: Year Ending 2008 (2009): 8. Available at http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/AWEA-Annual-Wind-Report-2009.pdf
p. 90 Minnesota... leads all states in the percentage... with Iowa a close second
American Wind Energy Association, Annual Wind Industry Report: Year Ending 2008 (2009): 9. Available at http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/AWEA-Annual-Wind-Report-2009.pdf
p. 90 Twenty-two states now have more than 100 megawatts
American Wind Energy Association, Annual Wind Industry Report: Year Ending 2008 (2009): 19. Available at http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/AWEA-Annual-Wind-Report-2009.pdf
p. 90 The world's largest onshore wind farm is in Texas... Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center... peak power
Christopher Mims, “Slide Show: The World's 10 Largest Renewable Energy Projects,” Scientific American, June 4, 2009. Available at http://www.scientificamerican.com/slideshow.cfm?id=10-largest-renewable-energy-projects&photo_id=ACAC0EBB-E848-748F-88F8A598C62EFD75.

Note:
Since the book's completion, E.ON's wind farm in Roscoe, TX, surpassed the Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center to become the world's largest onshore wind farm. See Eileen O'Grady, “E.ON completes world's largest wind farm in Texas,” Reuters, October 1, 2009. Available at http://www.reuters.com/article/bondsNews/idUSN3023624320091001.
p. 90 Three states... already get more than 5 percent of their electricity
American Wind Energy Association, Annual Wind Industry Report: Year Ending 2008 (2009): 9. Available at http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/AWEA-Annual-Wind-Report-2009.pdf
p. 90 Wind Resources in the United States [Graphic]
American Wind Energy Association, Annual Wind Industry Report: Year Ending 2008 (2009): 9. Available at http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/AWEA-Annual-Wind-Report-2009.pdf

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, “Wind Maps,” last updated June 5, 2009. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/gis/wind.html
p. 91 difficult to integrate intermittent sources... more than 20 percent of the total
Renewable Energy Research Laboratory, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, “Wind Power: Capacity Factor, Intermittency, and what happens when the wind doesn't blow?,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.ceere.org/rerl/about_wind/RERL_Fact_Sheet_2a_Capacity_Factor.pdf
p. 91 an estimated 13 millions homes that are suitable for these small windmills
American Wind Energy Association, AWEA Small Wind Turbine Global Market Study: Year Ending 2008 (2009): 6. Available at http://www.awea.org/smallwind/pdf/09_AWEA_Small_Wind_Global_Market_Study.pdf
p. 91 the cost for each kilowatt-hour of electricity increases as the windmill gets smaller
American Wind Energy Association, “The Economics of Wind Energy,” February 2005. Available at http://www.awea.org/pubs/factsheets/EconomicsOfWind-Feb2005.pdf
p. 91 from 35 to 140 feet tall
American Wind Energy Association, In the Public Interest: How and Why to Permit for Small Wind Systems (September 2008): 2. Available at http://www.awea.org/smallwind/pdf/InThePublicInterest.pdf
p. 91 enough electricity to pay for itself in six-plus to 30 years
American Wind Energy Association, AWEA Small Wind Turbine Global Market Study 2008 (June 2008): 11. Available at http://www.awea.org/smallwind/pdf/2008_AWEA_Small_Wind_Turbine_Global_Market_Study.pdf
p. 91 the payback period must be only a few years before there is widespread consumer interest
American Wind Energy Association, AWEA Small Wind Turbine Global Market Study 2008 (June 2008): 11. Available at http://www.awea.org/smallwind/pdf/2008_AWEA_Small_Wind_Turbine_Global_Market_Study.pdf
p. 91 At present, 10,000 small windmills are being installed each year
American Wind Energy Association, Annual Wind Industry Report: Year Ending 2008 (2009): 18. Available at http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/AWEA-Annual-Wind-Report-2009.pdf