“The energy in the photons of sunlight frees electrons from atoms in the PV cells so they can flow out of the cell as an electrical current.”

Our Sources Of Energy

Chapter Three

Electricity From The Sun

p. 63 The facilities produce 150 megawatts of power
NextEra Energy Resources, “Solar Electric Generating Systems,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.nexteraenergyresources.com/content/where/portfolio/pdf/segs.pdf

Note:
The SEGS facilities, as a whole, produce a total of 310MW of power. 150MW is equal to the capacity from the SEGS facilities owned by NextEra Energy Resources.
p. 64 parabolic trough mirrors
U.S. Department of Energy, “Linear Concentrator Systems,” last updated October 1, 2008. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/linear_concentrators.html
p. 64 long rows of nearly flat, rotating mirrors
U.S. Department of Energy, “Linear Concentrator Systems,” last updated October 1, 2008. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/linear_concentrators.html
p. 64 Power Tower
U.S. Department of Energy, “Power Tower Systems,” last updated September 18, 2008. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/power_towers.html
p. 64 Stirling engine
U.S. Department of Energy, “Dish/Engine Systems,” last updated September 16, 2008. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/dish_engines.html
p. 65 Spain's Olmedilla photovoltaic park... 60 megawatts of electricity
“Renewable Energy Photo,” Renewable Energy World. Available at http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/photo?id=50046
p. 67 some designs for CST require almost as much water
Todd Woody, “Alternative Energy Projects Stumble on a Need for Water,” The New York Times, September 30, 2009. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/30/business/energy-environment/30water.html
p. 67 The energy in the photons of sunlight frees electrons from atoms
U.S. Department of Energy, “The Photoelectric Effect,” last updated January 5, 2006. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/photoelectric_effect.html
p. 68 Moore's Law
Jo Twist, “Law that has driven digital life,” BBC News, April 18, 2005. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4449711.stm
p. 68 each doubling of the cumulative production volume has produced a 20 percent cost reduction
Eicke R. Weber, “Climate Change and the Role of Photovoltaics in the Energy Mix,” Solutions Summit, New York, January 9, 2008.
p. 69 More than 90 percent of the photovoltaic cells... made from silicon
Harin S. Ullal and Bolko von Roedern, “Thin-Film CIGS and CdTe Photovoltaic Technologies: Commercialization, Critical Issues, and Applications,” presented at the 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (Milan, Italy), September 3-7. 2007. Available at http://www.imicronews.com/upload/conference/Milano07ECPVSEC.pdf
p. 69 either single-crystal polysilicon (many small crystals) or amorphous silicon
U.S. Department of Energy, “Solar Cell Materials,” last updated December 23, 2005. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/solar_cell_materials.html
p. 69 silicon is the second most abundant substance
NASA, “World Book at NASA", last updated November 29, 2007. Available at http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/earth_worldbook.html
p. 69 as the cost has come down, demand has increased further
“PV Costs to Decrease 40% by 2010,” Renewable Energy World, May 23, 2007. Available at http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2007/05/pv-costs-to-decrease-40-by-2010-48624
p. 70 New types of “thin film” cells are cheaper
Martin A. Green, “Future Photovoltaic Technologies,” submitted as part of the Solutions Summit on January 9, 2008.
p. 70 The most common materials for these thin-film cells
See, for example: “Factbox: What is thin-film solar power?,” Reuters, June 1, 2009. Available at http://www.reuters.com/article/rbssSemiconductors/idUSN0147727920090601
p. 70 higher cost/higher efficiency and lower cost/lower efficiency
Martin A. Green, “Future Photovoltaic Technologies,” Solutions Summit, New York, January 9, 2008.
p. 70 The emergence of a new generation of photovoltaic cells
See, for example: UNSW School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, “Third Generation Photovoltaics,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.pv.unsw.edu.au/Research/3gp.asp
p. 70 some next-generation cells can actually use nanostructures
Kevin Bullis, “Cheap, Superefficient Solar,” Technology Review, November 9, 2006. Available at http://www.technologyreview.com/energy/17774/?a=f
p. 70 precious materials that are not abundant (selenium, for example)
Robert E. Krebs, The History and Use of Our Earth's Chemical Elements: A Reference Guide (Second Edition) (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2006): 238.
p. 70 this coincides with the normal peak demand for electricity
Pacific Gas & Electric, reprinted in Jonathan Marshall, “The Invisible Energy Resource,” Pacific Gas & Electric, next100.com, November 10, 2008. Available at http://www.next100.com/2008/11/the-invisible-energy-resource.php
p. 70 the heat collected in liquid tanks can be stored efficiently
Energy Information Administration, International Energy Outlook 2009 (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy, May 2009): 69. Available at http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/pdf/0484(2009).pdf
p. 70 One Power Tower design is expected to store heat for 15 hours
SENER, “Solar Tres,” NREL CSP Technology Workshop (Denver, March 7, 2007). Available at http://www.nrel.gov/csp/troughnet/pdfs/2007/martin_solar_tres.pdf
p. 70 so long as the overall percentage... does not exceed roughly 20 percent
Renewable Energy Research Laboratory, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, “Wind Power: Capacity Factor, Intermittency, and what happens when the wind doesn't blow?” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.ceere.org/rerl/about_wind/RERL_Fact_Sheet_2a_Capacity_Factor.pdf
p. 71 all forms of solar electricity are still priced higher
Energy Information Administration, “Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2009,” Annual Energy Outlook 2009 (Washington, DC: Department of Energy, March 2009). Available at http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/assumption/pdf/tbl8.2.pdf
p. 71 Space-Based Solar Power [Sidebar]
NASA, “Beam it Down, Scotty!” March 23, 2001. Available at http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2001/ast23mar_1.htm
p. 71 Sunlight that hits rooftop solar panels... around 125 to 375 watts per square meter
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, “PV Solar Radiation Static Maps,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/gis/solar.html
p. 73 more than 1,000 PV panels
“Vatican installs solar panel roof,” BBC News, September 29, 2008. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7642811.stm
p. 74 nine early CST plants were built between 1984 and 1991
Henry W. Price and Rainer Kistner, “Parabolic Trough Solar Power for Competitive U.S. Markets,” Proceedings of the ASME Renewable and Advanced Energy Systems for the 21st Century Conference (Maui, Hawaii), April 11-14, 1999. Available at http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/3535-oX9ob6/webviewable/3535.pdf
p. 74 market conditions and changes in government policy
Henry W. Price and Rainer Kistner, “Parabolic Trough Solar Power for Competitive U.S. Markets,” Proceedings of the ASME Renewable and Advanced Energy Systems for the 21st Century Conference (Maui, Hawaii), April 11-14, 1999. Available at http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/3535-oX9ob6/webviewable/3535.pdf
p. 74 new and improved CST plants have been built in Arizona and Nevada
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, “U.S. Parabolic Trough Power Plant Data,” last updated July 25, 2008. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/csp/troughnet/power_plant_data.html
p. 74 new incentives for solar electricity... new laws in California and several other states
For a summary of federal and state incentives, see: North Carolina Solar Center and Interstate Renewable Energy Council, “Financial Incentives for Renewable Energy,” Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy (2009), last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.dsireusa.org/summarytables/finre.cfm
p. 74 Florida Power and Light recently began construction
Florida Power and Light, “DeSoto Next Generation Solar Energy Center,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.fpl.com/environment/solar/desoto.shtml
p. 74 Spain and Germany... innovative government policies
For Spain, see: Juan Montes, “Hot Streak for Solar Power in Spain,” The Wall Street Journal, August 6, 2009. Available at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124952064523909699.html

For Germany, see:
Ashley Seager, “Germany sets shining example in providing a harvest for the world,” The Guardian, July 23, 2007. Available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2007/jul/23/germany.greenbusiness
p. 74 China and Taiwan have made major commitments
“Taiwan pledges $1.3 billion green investment,” The Associated Press, April 23, 2009.

“China to invest $85 billion in power industry,” The Associated Press, February 4, 2009.
p. 74 even though photovoltaics were developed in the United States
Gil Knier, “How do Photovoltaics Work?” Science@NASA, January 8, 2002. Available at http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2002/solarcells.htm
p. 74 only one of the 10 leading manufacturers is now based in the United States
“First Solar Will Be No. 1 Cell Producer This Year, iSuppli Says,” PVSociety.com, September 4, 2009. Available at http://www.pvsociety.com/article/339645-First_Solar_Will_Be_No_1_Cell_Producer_This_Year_iSuppli_Says.php

Note:
This report was released after the book went to press and it shows that two of the 10 leading manufacturers are now based in the United States (First Solar and SunPower).
p. 75 Designing for the Sun [Sidebar]
U.S. Department of Energy, “Passive Solar Home Design,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/designing_remodeling/index.cfm/mytopic=10250
p. 75 Approximately 40 percent of all U.S. greenhouse gas emissions come from buildings energy use
U.S. Green Building Council, “Green Building Research,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=1718