Our Choice

Chapter Fourteen — Changing The Way We Think (Endnotes)

p. 301 As Benjamin Franklin wrote in 1749
Benjamin Franklin, Poor Richard's Almanack (Barnes & Noble Publishing, 2004): 166

The quote should read “If Passion drives, let Reason hold the Reins.”
p. 301 the states refused to ratify the Constitution until individual freedoms provided by the First Amendment... were added
Richard Labunski, James Madison and the Struggle for the Bill of Rights (Oxford University Press, 2006).
p. 304 the automatic and semiautomatic brain responses
Antonio Rangel, “Basic Neuroeconomics and the Politics of Climate Change” (Solutions Summit, New York, April 30, 2009).
p. 304 the disappearance of salmon off the coast of California
David Gorn, “What's Killing California's Salmon?,” NPR, April 11, 2009. Available at http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=102997037
p. 304 the loss of specific songbird species in multiple areas
Audubon, Birds and Climate Change: Ecological Disruption in Motion (February 2009). Available at http://birdsandclimate.audubon.org/
p. 304 the radical changes in duck populations
P. Glick, The Waterfowler's Guide to Global Warming (National Wildlife Federation, June 2005). Available at http://www.nwf.org/globalwarming/pdfs/WaterfowlersGuideToGlobalWarming.pdf
p. 304 The scientific evidence... is unequivocal... “probabilities” and unfamiliar “nonlinear effects”
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report (Geneva, Switzerland, IPCC, 2007). Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_synthesis_report.htm
p. 305 Dr. Greg Berns of Emory University notes
Gregory S. Berns, David Laibson, and George Loewenstein, “Intertemporal Choiceâ toward an integrative framework,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11, no. 11 (November 2007): 482-488.
p. 305 50 percent decline É fewer than 20 percent
Bill Hendrick, “Smoking Rate is Declining in U.S.,” WebMD Health News, November 13, 2008. Available at http://www.webmd.com/smoking-cessation/news/20081113/smoking-rate-is-declining-in-us
p. 305 responsible for 90 percent of all lung cancers
National Institute on Drug Abuse, “NIDA InfoFacts: Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products,” revised June 2009. Available at http://www.nida.nih.gov/infofacts/tobacco.html
p. 307 the particular part of the brain... ambivalence for the future
Antonio Rangel, “Basic Neuroeconomics and the Politics of Climate Change” (Solutions Summit, New York, April 30, 2009).

Todd A. Hare, Colin F. Camerer, and Antonio Rangel, “Self-Control in Decision-Making Involves Modulation of the vmPFC Valuation System,” Science 324 (May 1, 2009): 646-648.
p. 310 The average American now sees an average of 3,000 advertising messages per day
Barry Schwartz, The Paradox of Choice: Why More Is Less (New York, Harper Collins, 2004): 53.
p. 310 Per capita purchases of clothing in the United States doubled
Juliet Schor, “Lifestyle and Consumption in a Sustainable Economy” (presentation, May 15, 2008). Available at https://secure.ametsoc.org/atmospolicy/documents/2009ESSS/schori%20briefing%20jan%2009.pdf
p. 310 U.S. household debt... grew to 138 percent of disposable income
Martin N. Baily, Susan Lund, and Charles Atkins, Will US consumer debt reduction cripple the recovery? (McKinsey Global Institute, March 2009): 1. Available at http://www.mckinsey.com/mgi/reports/pdfs/us_consumers/MGI_US_consumers_full_report.pdf
p. 310 The Brain's Self-Control Center [Graphic]
Todd A. Hare, Colin F. Camerer, and Antonio Rangel, “Self-Control in Decision-Making Involves Modulation of the vmPFC Valuation System,” Science 324 (May 1, 2009): 646-648.
p. 311 Per capita production of waste... used to generate electricity
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Wastes - Non-Hazardous Waste,” last updated March 13, 2009.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, The National Biennial RCRA Hazardous Waste Report (November 2008): 1-1

U.S. Census Bureau, “U.S. & World Population Clocks,” last revised August 5, 2009. Available at http://www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html

141 pounds is based on adding total hazardous waste (46,693,284 tons) to non-hazardous waste (251 million tons of municipal solid waste and 7.6 billion tons of industrial solid waste), converting to pounds, dividing by the total population (308,000,000), and dividing by 365 (days per year).
p. 311 The average American now spends five hours per day watching television
Nielsen, Television, Internet and Mobile Usage in the U.S. (The Nielsen Company, 2009). Available at http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/3_screens_4q08_final.pdf
p. 311 The average home, according to Nielsen, now has
“More than Half the Homes in U.S. Have Three or More TVs,” Nielsen Wire, July 20, 2009. Available at http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/media_entertainment/more-than-half-the-homes-in-us-have-three-or-more-tvs/
p. 311 No wonder the number of Americans who say they agree
Barry Schwartz, The Paradox of Choice: Why More Is Less (New York, Harper Collins, 2004): 103.
p. 311 Yet the level of happiness in modern U.S. society... production and consumption
David G. Blanchflower and Andrew J. Oswald, “Well-being over time in Britain and the USA,” Journal of Public Economics 88 (2004): 1359-1386.
p. 311 the United States has tripled its economic output... general sense of well-being
Bureau of Economic Analysis, “Table 1.1.6 Real Gross Domestic Product, Chained Dollars,” last revised September 30, 2009. Available at http://www.bea.gov/national/nipaweb/SelectTable.asp?Selected=Y

According to the BEA data, GDP increased almost fivefold from 1958 to 2008.
p. 312 “psychological subsidies"... “psychological taxes”
Eldar Shafir, “Behavior Change: Psychological Taxes and Subsidies” (Solutions Summit, Washington, DC, April 30, 2009).
p. 312 Such rewards are sometimes called “nudges”
Richard H. Thaler and Cass R. Sunstein, Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness (Caravan, 2008).
p. 314 what psychologists call “single-action bias”
Jon Gertner, “Why Isn't the Brain Green?” The New York Times Magazine, April 16, 2009. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/19/magazine/19Science-t.html?_r=1
p. 314 a proposal from a distinguished nuclear physicist, Edward Teller
Edward Teller, Lowell Wood, and Roderick Hyde, “Global Warming and Ice Ages: I. Prospects for Physics-Based Modulation of Global Change,” 22nd International Seminar on Planetary Emergencies, Erice (Sicily), Italy, August 20-23 1997 (August 15, 1997). Available at http://www.osti.gov/accomplishments/documents/fullText/ACC0229.pdf
p. 314 An even more extreme proposal involves placing a giant parasol in orbit
D.J. Lunt, A. Ridgwell, P.J. Valdes, and A. Seale, “'Sunshade World': A fully coupled GCM evaulation of the climatic impacts of geoengineering,” Geophysical Research Letters 35 (June 25, 2008): L12710. Available at http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2008/2008GL033674.shtml
p. 314 They point out that volcanoes inject about the same amount
Paul J. Crutzen, “Albedo Enhancement by Stratospheric Sulfur Injections: A Contribution to Resolve a Policy Dilemma?” Climatic Change 77, no. 3-4 (August 2006): 211-220. Available at http://www.springerlink.com/content/t1vn75m458373h63/
p. 314 we would face the sudden acceleration of global warming
H. Damon Matthews and Ken Caldeira, “Transient climate-carbon simulations of planetary geoengineering,” PNAS 104, no. 24 (June 12, 2007): 9949-954. Available at http://www.pnas.org/content/104/24/9949.full.pdf+html
p. 314 would do nothing to stop the other consequences of CO2 buildup
H. Damon Matthews, Long Cao, and Ken Caldeira, “Sensitivity of ocean acidification to geoengineered climate stabilization,” Geophysical Research Letters 36 (May 28, 2009): L10706. Available at http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2009/2009GL037488.shtml
p. 314 A more benign proposal involves painting roofs white
Arthur H. Rosenfeld and Hashem Akbari, “White Roofs Cool the World, Directly Offset CO2 and Delay Global Warming,” Research Highlights: LBNL Heat Island Group, November 10, 2008. Available at http://www.energy.ca.gov/2008publications/CEC-999-2008-031/CEC-999-2008-031.PDF
p. 315 Early experiments involving enrichment of some areas of the ocean with iron have failed
Richard Black, “Setback for climate technical fix,” BBC News, March 23, 2009. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7959570.stm

“Ocean Carbon: Dent in iron fertilization hypothesis previously proposed to address climate change,” Science Daily, May 8, 2009. Available at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/05/090506131512.htm
p. 315 advise us to strengthen the linkage between solutions to global warming and solutions to other challenges
Drew Westen and Celinda Lake, “Speaking with Americans about Energy and Climate: From the Think Tank to the Kitchen Table,” The Huffington Post, May 20, 2009. Available at http://www.huffingtonpost.com/drew-westen/speaking-with-americans-a_b_205598.html
p. 316 there is also evidence that the legacy gifts of one generation to the next carry with them
Robert Cialdini, “The Power of Social Versus Financial Factors in Behavior Change” (Solutions Summit, Washington, DC, April 30, 2009).