“One dollar invested in more efficient electrical equipment… avoids more than two dollars in investment in electricity supply.” —International Energy Agency

How We Use Energy

Chapter Twelve

Less Is More

p. 244 Overall U.S. electrical generation converts only 33 percent of fuel to electricity
Energy Information Administration, “Electricity Flow, 2008,” Annual Energy Review 2008 (U.S. Department of Energy, June 2009): 225. Available at http://eia.doe.gov/aer/contents.html
p. 244 A recent study by the World Alliance for Decentralized Energy found
Sytze Dijkstra, The WADE Economic Modelâ Previous Results and Future Applications (World Alliance for Decentralized Energy, February 20, 2006). Available at http://www.localpower.org/nar_publications.html
p. 244 the International Energy Agency (IEA) found that
International Energy Agency, “The World Energy Outlook 2006 Maps Out a Cleaner, Cleverer and More Competitive Energy Future,” Press Release, November 7, 2006. Available at http://www.iea.org/press/pressdetail.asp?PRESS_REL_ID=187

Diana Farrell, Jaana Remes, and Dominic Charles, Fueling sustainable development: The energy productivity solution (McKinsey & Company, October 2008). Available at http://www.mckinsey.com/mgi/reports/pdfs/fueling_sustainable_development/MGI_developing_country_energy_perspective.pdf
p. 244 According to efficiency expert Robert Ayres
R.U. Ayres, L.W. Ayres, and B. Warr, Energy, Power and Work in the US Economy, 1900-1998 (Center for the Management of Environmental Resources, 2002). Available at http://www.iea.org/work/2004/eewp/Ayres-paper3.pdf

Tom Casten, interview with author, August 25, 2009.
p. 245 One dollar invested in more efficient electrical equipment... avoids more than two dollars in investment in electricity supply
International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2006 (OECD/IEA, 2006): 43. Available at http://www.iea.org/weo/2006.asp
p. 246 The (Often Negative) Costs of Reducing Greenhouse Gases [Sidebar]
McKinsey & Company, Pathways to a Low-Carbon Economy: Version 2 of the Global Greenhouse Gas Abatement Cost Curve (McKinsey & Company, 2009). Available at http://www.mckinsey.com/clientservice/ccsi/pathways_low_carbon_economy.asp

Per-Anders Enkvist, Tomas Nauclér, and Jerker Rosander, “A cost curve for greenhouse gas reduction,” The McKinsey Quarterly, no. 1 (2007). Available at http://www.epa.gov/air/caaac/coaltech/2007_05_mckinsey.pdf

Note:
The 2009 McKinsey report says that 11 Gt of the 38 Gt abatement potential will save money in the near term. This is nearly 30 percent.

The 2009 McKinsey report says that the abatement investments would correspond to 1.3 percent of projected global GDP in 2030.
p. 247 McKinsey & Company found in a report published in July 2009
Hannah Choi Granade, Jon Creyts, Anton Derkach, Philip Farese, Scott Nyquist, and Ken Ostrowski, Unlocking Energy Efficiency in the U.S. Economy (McKinsey & Company, July 2009): 2. Available at http://www.mckinsey.com/clientservice/electricpowernaturalgas/downloads/US_energy_efficiency_full_report.pdf

Note:
The report says we can achieve a 23 percent reduction in the projected increase in energy consumption by 2020.
p. 247 a report by the McKinsey Global Institute found that
Diana Farrell, Jaana Remes, and Dominic Charles, Fueling sustainable development: The energy productivity solution (McKinsey & Company, October 2008): 4, 10. Available at http://www.mckinsey.com/mgi/reports/pdfs/fueling_sustainable_development/MGI_developing_country_energy_perspective.pdf
p. 247 Johnson Controls... points out that
Nathan Cheng, “Energy Efficiency Opportunities in the Building and Transportation Sectors in China” (Solutions Summit, New York, January 8, 2008).
p. 247 the United States cut oil use by 17 percent while increasing economic output by 27 percent
Amory Lovins, “Energy End-Use Efficiency,” September 19, 2005: 11. Available at http://www.rmi.org/images/PDFs/Energy/E05-16_EnergyEndUseEff.pdf
p. 247 Our dependence on imported oil dropped by half
Amory Lovins, “Energy End-Use Efficiency,” September 19, 2005: 11. Available at http://www.rmi.org/images/PDFs/Energy/E05-16_EnergyEndUseEff.pdf
p. 247 California Leads the Way [Graphic]
Arthur H. Rosenfeld, “Energy Efficiency in California,” Climate Group Breakfast Preceding Gov. Schwarzenegger's Climate Summit (presentation, November 18, 2008): slide 9. Available at http://www.energy.ca.gov/2008publications/CEC-999-2008-032/CEC-999-2008-032.PDF
p. 249 OPEC was forced to cut oil prices significantly
Amory Lovins, “Energy End-Use Efficiency,” September 19, 2005: 11. Available at http://www.rmi.org/images/PDFs/Energy/E05-16_EnergyEndUseEff.pdf
p. 249 energy use per unit of GDP decreased by a third
Arthur H. Rosenfeld, “Energy Efficiency in California,” Climate Group Breakfast Preceding Gov. Schwarzenegger's Climate Summit (presentation, November 18, 2008): slide 6. Available at http://www.energy.ca.gov/2008publications/CEC-999-2008-032/CEC-999-2008-032.PDF
p. 249 Art Rosenfeld... points out that... same economic-output gains
Arthur H. Rosenfeld, “Energy Efficiency in California,” Climate Group Breakfast Preceding Gov. Schwarzenegger's Climate Summit (presentation, November 18, 2008). Available at http://www.energy.ca.gov/2008publications/CEC-999-2008-032/CEC-999-2008-032.PDF
p. 249 the ratio of energy use to each dollar of GDP in California
Arthur H. Rosenfeld, “Energy Efficiency in California,” Climate Group Breakfast Preceding Gov. Schwarzenegger's Climate Summit (presentation, November 18, 2008): slide 6. Available at http://www.energy.ca.gov/2008publications/CEC-999-2008-032/CEC-999-2008-032.PDF
p. 249 According to the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
U.S. Department of Energy, “Motors, Pumps and Fans,” last updated February 27, 2009. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/bestpractices/printable_versions/motors.html
p. 249 According to Amory Lovins
Amory B. Lovins, and L. Hunter Lovins, Climate: Making Sense and Making Money (Rocky Mountain Institute, November 13, 1997): 6. Available at http://www.rmi.org/images/PDFs/Climate/C97-13_ClimateMSMM.pdf
p. 250 Recent advances known as “thin-slab casting” and “direct casting"... large mills as well
Clayton M. Christensen, The Innovator's Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail (Harper Paperbacks, 2003): 106-108. Originally published by Harvard Business School Press, 1997.

William T. Hogan, Steel in the 21st Century: Competition Forges a New World Order (New York, Lexington Books, 1994): 115-117.
p. 250 more than a quarter of the electricity used by industrial systems in the manufacturing sector
U.S. Department of Energy, Improving Pumping System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry (Second Edition) (U.S. Department of Energy, May 2006): 3. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/bestpractices/pdfs/pump.pdf
p. 250 engineers have traditionally erred on the side of oversizing pumps
Amory Lovins, “Energy End-Use Efficiency,” September 19, 2005: 16-17. Available at http://www.rmi.org/images/PDFs/Energy/E05-16_EnergyEndUseEff.pdf

Amory B. Lovins and L. Hunter Lovins, Climate: Making Sense and Making Money (Rocky Mountain Institute, November 13, 1997): 5. Available at http://www.rmi.org/images/PDFs/Climate/C97-13_ClimateMSMM.pdf
p. 250 many companies have found enormous energy savings
Amory Lovins, interview with author, July 3, 2009.
p. 252 specialty membranes have been designed for gas separation
National Research Council, “Chapter 3: Petroleum Industry,” Separation Technologies for the Industries of the Future (Washington, DC, National Academy Press: 1998). Available at http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=6388

A. Basu, J. Akhtar, M.H. Rahman, and M.R. Islam, “A Review of Separation of Gases Using Membrane Systems,” Petroleum Science and Technology 22, no. 9 & 10 (January 2004): 1343-1368. Available at http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a713647240~db=all
p. 252 95 percent of the energy can be eliminated
Amory B. Lovins and L. Hunter Lovins, Climate: Making Sense and Making Money (Rocky Mountain Institute, November 13, 1997): 7. Available at http://www.rmi.org/images/PDFs/Climate/C97-13_ClimateMSMM.pdf
p. 252 more than 50 billion aluminum cans are thrown away
Jennifer Gitlitz, Trashed Cans: The Global Environmental Impacts of Aluminum Can Wasting in America (Container Recycling Institute, 2002): 1. Available at http://www.container-recycling.org/facts/aluminum/
p. 252 The Container Recycling Institute reported that
Jennifer Gitlitz, Trashed Cans: The Global Environmental Impacts of Aluminum Can Wasting in America (Container Recycling Institute, 2002): 5. Available at http://www.container-recycling.org/facts/aluminum/
p. 252 Large quantities of aluminum are also discarded
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States: Facts and Figures for 2006 (U.S. EPA): 7. Available at http://www.epa.gov/waste/nonhaz/municipal/pubs/msw06.pdf
p. 252 Another 50 billion containers... instead of being recycled
Jennifer Gitlitz and Pat Franklin, Water, Water Everywhere: The Growth of Non-Carbonated Beverages in the United States (Container Recycling Institute, February 2007): 5. Available at http://www.container-recycling.org/assets/pdfs/reports/2007-waterwater.pdf
p. 252 The phthalates in these bottles... concern to public health
Nicholas D. Kristof, “Chemical and Our Health,” The New York Times, July 15, 2009. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/16/opinion/16kristof.html
p. 252 When you add the 29 billion glass bottles... two million cars
Jennifer Gitlitz and Pat Franklin, Water, Water Everywhere: The Growth of Non-Carbonated Beverages in the United States (Container Recycling Institute, February 2007): 5. Available at http://www.container-recycling.org/assets/pdfs/reports/2007-waterwater.pdf

Note:
Calculation of “two million cars” based on:

Average car uses 550 gallons of gasoline per year, from “Gas Watcher's Guide,” AAA Association Communication, last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.aaaexchange.com/assets/files/20076111234360.gaswatchersguide2007.pdf

Average barrel of oil produces 18.56 gallons of gasoline, from Energy Information Administration, “Oil (petroleum),” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/kids/energy.cfm?page=oil_home-basics
p. 253 The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) concluded in a major study that
Anna Shipley, Anne Hampson, Bruce Hedman, Patti Garland, and Paul Bautista, Combined Heat and Power: Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, December 1, 2008): 3, 9. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/distributedenergy/pdfs/chp_report_12-08.pdf
p. 253 a Department of Energy study calculated in 2007 that
Thomas R. Casten, Jeffrey Smith, and Phillip F. Schewe, “Performing Two Tasks with One Fire: Low-cost, low-carbon electricity is possible,” unpublished manuscript.

Note:
Calculation of 40% based on 135GW of potential capacity from CHP (from Casten, Smith, and Schewe's citation of the 2007 DOE study) and an existing 336GW of capacity from coal-fired power plants, from Energy Information Administration, Electric Power Annual 2007 (U.S. Department of Energy, January 21, 2009): 25. Available at
p. 253 How Cogeneration Works [Graphic]
EPA Region 9 Laboratory, “Cogeneration at Work,” pamphlet. Available at http://www.epa.gov/oaintrnt/documents/richmond_brochure_508.pdf
p. 254 ORNL also calculates that by 2030... could be avoided
Anna Shipley, Anne Hampson, Bruce Hedman, Patti Garland, and Paul Bautista, Combined Heat and Power: Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, December 1, 2008): 4. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/distributedenergy/pdfs/chp_report_12-08.pdf
p. 254 with five countries now getting between 30 and 50 percent
International Energy Agency, Combined Heat and Power: Evaluating the benefits of greater global investment (OECD/IEA, 2008): 8. Available at http://www.iea.org/papers/2008/CHP_report.pdf
p. 254 if all of the wasted energy from U.S. factories was captured and recycled
Casten, Thomas R., Jeffrey Smith, and Phillip F. Schewe, “Performing Two Tasks with One Fire: Low-cost, low-carbon electricity is possible,” unpublished manuscript.
p. 254 A recent study by experts at the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy
Tina M. Kaarsberg, R. Neal Elliott, and Mark Spurr, “An Integrated Assessment of the Energy Savings and Emissions-Reduction Potential of Combined Heat and Power” (June 1999): 2. Available at http://www.eere.energy.gov/de/pdfs/chp_integrated_assessment.pdf
p. 254 the International Energy Agency reports that
International Energy Agency, Combined Heat and Power: Evaluating the benefits of greater global investment (OECD/IEA, 2008): 11. Available at http://www.iea.org/papers/2008/CHP_report.pdf
p. 254 the IEA concluded
International Energy Agency, Combined Heat and Power: Evaluating the benefits of greater global investment (OECD/IEA, 2008): 7. Available at http://www.iea.org/papers/2008/CHP_report.pdf
p. 255 the United States is well below the average for major industrial countries
International Energy Agency, Combined Heat and Power: Evaluating the benefits of greater global investment (OECD/IEA, 2008): 8. Available at http://www.iea.org/papers/2008/CHP_report.pdf
p. 255 the ACEEE notes that one of the reasons is
American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, “Combined Heat and Power: The Efficient Path for New Power Generation,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.aceee.org/energy/chp.htm
p. 255 As the Oak Ridge National Laboratory puts it
Anna Shipley, Anne Hampson, Bruce Hedman, Patti Garland, and Paul Bautista, Combined Heat and Power: Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, December 1, 2008): 22. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/distributedenergy/pdfs/chp_report_12-08.pdf
p. 255 As Tom Casten puts it
Tom Casten, interview with author, August 2009.
p. 255 some of the gross abuses caused by the “cost-plus” formula
For example: Ross Colvin, “Obama takes aim at costly U.S. defense contracts,” Reuters, March 4, 2009. Available at http://www.reuters.com/article/vcCandidateFeed7/idUSN04407906
p. 255 Electric utilities in most states are using a variety of techniques
Anna Shipley, Anne Hampson, Bruce Hedman, Patti Garland, and Paul Bautista, Combined Heat and Power: Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, December 1, 2008): 22. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/distributedenergy/pdfs/chp_report_12-08.pdf
p. 255 It is not unusual for utilties to try... six million chance of occurring
Thomas R. Casten and Dick Munson, Deploying Clean Energy: Overcoming Regulatory Barriers (RED, January 2009): 4. Available at http://www.recycled-energy.com/_documents/media-kit/RED-BarriersBro-v1.pdf
p. 255 The ACEEE notes that many utilities also charge
American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, “Combined Heat and Power: The Efficient Path for New Power Generation,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.aceee.org/energy/chp.htm
p. 255 The organization lists among other roadblocks to CHP
American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, “Combined Heat and Power: The Efficient Path for New Power Generation,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.aceee.org/energy/chp.htm
p. 255 Most states do not recognize CHP as part of the Renewable Portfolio Standards
Resource Dynamics Corporation, Barriers to CHP with Renewable Portfolio Standards (U.S. Department of Energy, September 2007). Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/distributedenergy/pdfs/barriers_chp_renewable_portfolio_standards.pdf
p. 255 Another major barrier is treating power from a local CHP plant
Thomas Casten, interview with author, August 25, 2009.
p. 255 49 states ban use of a private wire
Thomas Casten, interview with author, August 25, 2009.
p. 257 California's plan enables energy utilities to share in the savings
Martin Kushler, Dan York, and Patti Witte, “Aligning Utility Interests with Energy Efficiency Objectives: A Review of Recent Efforts at Decoupling and Performance Incentives” (American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, October 2006). Available at http://aceee.org/pubs/u061.pdf?CFID=808004&CFTOKEN=98549903
p. 257 According to ORNL
Anna Shipley, Anne Hampson, Bruce Hedman, Patti Garland, and Paul Bautista, Combined Heat and Power: Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, December 1, 2008): 5. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/distributedenergy/pdfs/chp_report_12-08.pdf
p. 257 The Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics at Carnegie Mellon University reports that
Volker Hartkopf, “Global, National and Local Implications of Building Energy and Environmental Effectiveness,” (Solutions Summit, New York, January 8, 2008).
p. 257 The Electric Power Research Institute found that
Arshad Mansoor, “Enabling Efficiency and Renewables,” 2007 Summer Seminar (slideshow): slide 3. Available at http://mydocs.epri.com/docs/SummerSeminar07/Presentations/EPRI_Summer_Seminar_07_Mansoor.pdf
p. 257 The McKinsey Global Institute adds
Diana Farrell, Jaana Remes, and Dominic Charles, Fueling sustainable development: The energy productivity solution (McKinsey & Company, October 2008): 22. Available at http://www.mckinsey.com/mgi/reports/pdfs/fueling_sustainable_development/MGI_developing_country_energy_perspective.pdf
p. 257 The potential savings are so large that, according to McKinsey
Diana Farrell, Jaana Remes, and Dominic Charles, Fueling sustainable development: The energy productivity solution (McKinsey & Company, October 2008): 22. Available at http://www.mckinsey.com/mgi/reports/pdfs/fueling_sustainable_development/MGI_developing_country_energy_perspective.pdf
p. 258 According to the National Science Foundation
Volker Hartkopf, “Global, National and Local Implications of Building Energy and Environmental Effectiveness,” (Solutions Summit, New York, January 8, 2008).
p. 258 The regulatory barriers preventing the avoidance of this inefficiency have held
Thomas R. Casten and Dick Munson, Deploying Clean Energy: Overcoming Regulatory Barriers (RED, January 2009): 1. Available at http://www.recycled-energy.com/_documents/media-kit/RED-BarriersBro-v1.pdf
p. 258 On September 4, 1882, at precisely 3 p.m., Thomas Edison
Richard Munson, From Edison to Enron: the business of power and what it means for the future of electricity (Westport, CT, Praeger Publishers: 2005): 18.
p. 258 The Times reported the following day
“Edison's Electric Light,” The New York Times, September 5, 1882. Available at http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9906E1DE143DE533A25756C0A96F9C94639FD7CF
p. 258 It still gave off only 1.4 lumens
Richard Stepler, “Energy-saving lighting: New watt-savers help cut energy costs,” Popular Science, September 1980: 126.
p. 258 Modern incandescent bulbs are more efficient still
Federal Energy Management Program, “Purchasing Specifications for Energy-Efficient Products,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/pseep_cfl.pdf

Leora Broydo Vestel, “Incandescent Bulbs Return to the Cutting Edge,” The New York Times, July 5, 2009. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/06/business/energy-environment/06bulbs.html
p. 258 The new compact fluorescent lightbulbs (CFLs) have received
U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Star Qualified Lightbulbs: 2006 Partner Resource Guide (DOE). Available at http://www.energystar.gov/ia/partners/manuf_res/CFL_PRG_FINAL.pdf
p. 258 A Better Lightbulb [Graphic]
CFL and incandescent: U.S. Department of Energy, “Compact Fluorescent Lamp,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/procurement/eep_compact_fluor_lamp.html

LED (2010): U.S. Department of Energy, NETL, The Energy Lab NewsRoom, “DOE’s Solid State Lighting Program: R&D for Efficient Lighting,” April 2009. Available at http://www.netl.doe.gov/newsroom/features/04-2009.html
p. 259 LEDs... already acheived 100 lumens per watt... standard light sockets within one year
Mark P. Mills, “The LED Illumination Revolution,” Forbes, February 27, 2008. Available at http://www.forbes.com/2008/02/27/incandescent-led-cfl-pf-guru_in_mm_0227energy_inl.html

Eric A. Taub, “Coming Soon: A 40-Watt LED Light Bulb,” Bits (The New York Times), May 6, 2009. Available at http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/05/06/coming-soon-a-40-watt-led-light-bulb/
p. 259 Approximately 12.5 percent of global electricity production
Mark P. Mills, “The LED Illumination Revolution,” Forbes, February 27, 2008. Available at http://www.forbes.com/2008/02/27/incandescent-led-cfl-pf-guru_in_mm_0227energy_inl.html
p. 259 named after P.T. Barnum's famous African elephant, Jumbo
Richard Munson, From Edison to Enron: the business of power and what it means for the future of electricity (Westport, CT, Praeger Publishers: 2005): 18.
p. 259 Jumbo captured only 3 to 4 percent... 10 times as efficient
Harold H. Schobert, Energy and Society: An Introduction (New York, Taylor & Francis, 2002): 239.

Center for Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, “Combined Heat and Power,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.ceere.org/iac/iac_combined.html
p. 259 Edison personally inspected another new electrical system
Burke Ormsby, “The Lady Who Lives by the Sea: The Story of Hotel del Coronado,” The Journal of San Diego History 12, no. 1 (January 1966). Available at https://www.sandiegohistory.org/journal/66january/ladybysea.htm
p. 259 This hotel was the first to get district heating
Center for Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, “Combined Heat and Power,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.ceere.org/iac/iac_combined.html
p. 260 In typical European systems
Thomas Casten, interview with author, August 25, 2009.
p. 260 when natural gas is burned to produce electricity... heat at the stove
Rocky Mountain Institute, “#8 Kitchen Appliances,” Home Energy Briefs (RMI, December 3, 2004). Available at http://www.rmi.org/images/other/HEBs/E04-18_HEB8_KitchenApps.pdf
p. 260 The most efficient applications for district heating thus far
International District Energy Association, “District Energy Systems,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.districtenergy.org/pdfs/one_pager.pdf
p. 260 Where Our Gasoline's Energy Goes [Graphic]
U.S. Department of Energy, “Advanced Technologies & Energy Efficiency,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.fueleconomy.gov/FEG/atv.shtml
p. 261 Helsinki, the capital of Finland, has long received more than 92 percent of the heat
International Energy Agency, Combined Heat and Power: Evaluating the benefits of greater global investment (OECD/IEA, 2008): 16. Available at http://www.iea.org/papers/2008/CHP_report.pdf
p. 261 According to a report from Helsinki Energy in 2008
International Energy Agency, Combined Heat and Power: Evaluating the benefits of greater global investment (OECD/IEA, 2008): 16. Available at http://www.iea.org/papers/2008/CHP_report.pdf

Helsingin Energia, Annual Report 2008, last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.helen.fi/vuosi2008/Eng/VK_2008_engl.pdf
p. 261 Russia, which receives more than 30 percent... this energy-efficient approach
International Energy Agency, Combined Heat and Power: Evaluating the benefits of greater global investment (OECD/IEA, 2008): 18. Available at http://www.iea.org/papers/2008/CHP_report.pdf
p. 261 there are now more than 50,000 homes in Japan... 90 percent efficient
Propane Education & Research Council, In Touch 9, no. 2 (Summer 2007). Available at http://www.propanecouncil.org/uploadedFiles/propanecouncil/Resources/Industry/Summer2007InTouch.pdf
p. 261 profitably transmitted only half a mile
Smithsonian Institution, “Promoting Edison's Lamp,” Lighting a Revolution, last updated August 2008. Available at http://americanhistory.si.edu/lighting/19thcent/promo19.htm
p. 261 Six years later, Nikola Tesla... competing with Edison
Margaret Cheney, Robert Uth, and Jim Glenn, Tesla: Master of Lighting (Barnes & Noble Publishing): 23-4.
p. 261 by the 1930s, these generators began to be located some distance from downtown areas
Center for Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, “Combined Heat and Power,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.ceere.org/iac/iac_combined.html
p. 262 The Clean Air Act of 1970 grandfathered old, inefficient plants
Thomas R. Casten and Dick Munson, Deploying Clean Energy: Overcoming Regulatory Barriers (RED, January 2009): 7. Available at http://www.recycled-energy.com/_documents/media-kit/RED-BarriersBro-v1.pdf
p. 262 The United Nations Environment Program estimates that
United Nations Environment Programme, “Buildings Can Play a Key Role in Combating Climate Change,” March 29, 2007. Available at http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=502&ArticleID=5545&l=en
p. 262 The United States is at the top of the building inefficiency range
U.S. Green Building Council, “Green Building Research,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=1718
p. 262 many local codes require constant lighting of certain common spaces and emergency exits
Thomas Casten, interview with author, August 25, 2009.
p. 262 Legislation now pending in the U.S. Congress
Lloyd Alter, “Architect Alert: Waxman-Markey Has a Big Impact on Building,” Treehugger, June 30, 2009. Available at http://www.treehugger.com/files/2009/06/waxman-markey-has-big-effect-on-building.php
p. 265 Other countries... good use of such laws
International Energy Agency, Energy Efficiency Requirements in Building Codes, Energy Efficiency Policies for New Buildings (OECD/IEA, March 2008). Available at http://www.iea.org/papers/2008/cd_energy_efficiency_policy/2-Buildings/2-Building_Codes.pdf
p. 265 typically pay for themselves through saved energy bills in less than three years
For example, see Amory Lovins, “Energy End-Use Efficiency,” September 19, 2005: 17. Available at http://www.rmi.org/images/PDFs/Energy/E05-16_EnergyEndUseEff.pdf
p. 265 residential air ducts, on average, were leaking 20 to 30 percent... enforce the standard
Joseph Romm, “Why we never need to build another polluting power plant,” Salon, July 28, 2008. Available at http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2008/07/28/energy_efficiency/print.html
p. 265 by cutting heat loss in winter by two thirds and reducing unwanted heat gain during summer by one half
Amory B. Lovins and L. Hunter Lovins, Climate: Making Sense and Making Money (Rocky Mountain Institute, November 13, 1997): 6. Available at http://www.rmi.org/images/PDFs/Climate/C97-13_ClimateMSMM.pdf
p. 265 Highly reflective white roofs are particularly efficient
Arthur H. Rosenfeld and Hashem Akbari, “White Roofs Cool the World, Directly Offset CO2 and Delay Global Warming,” Research Highlights: LBNL Heat Island Group, November 10, 2008. Available at http://www.energy.ca.gov/2008publications/CEC-999-2008-031/CEC-999-2008-031.PDF
p. 269 roof-mounted solar hot water heaters pay back their purchase price
U.S. Department of Energy, “Solar Water Heaters,” last updated March 24, 2009. Available at http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/water_heating/index.cfm/mytopic=12850

U.S. Department of Energy, “The Economics of a Solar Water Heater,” last updated February 24, 2009. Available at http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/water_heating/index.cfm/mytopic=12860
p. 269 so much energy is used by American television sets while they are in standby mode
Amory B. Lovins and L. Hunter Lovins, Climate: Making Sense and Making Money (Rocky Mountain Institute, November 13, 1997): 16. Available at http://www.rmi.org/images/PDFs/Climate/C97-13_ClimateMSMM.pdf
p. 269 The internal-combustion engine... percentage to 75 percent
U.S. Department of Energy, “Electric Vehicles (EVs),” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.fueleconomy.gov/FEG/evtech.shtml
p. 269 The new increased standards adopted in the U.S. in 2008
Amanda Ruggeri, “Obama Boosts Fuel Economy Standards Despite Detroit's Woes,” U.S. News & World Report, March 27, 2009. Available at http://www.usnews.com/articles/news/energy/2009/03/27/obama-boosts-fuel-economy-standards-despite-detroits-woes.html
p. 269 are still far below those in China, Europe, and Japan
The International Council on Clean Transportation, Passenger Vehicle Greenhouse Gas and Fuel Economy Standards: A Global Update (ICCT, July 2007). Available at http://www.theicct.org/documents/ICCT_GlobalStandards_2007_revised.pdf
p. 269 A number of airline companies are actively investigating the use of alternative sources of fuel
Katie Howell, “Plant-derived fuels could be certified for flights within a year, says Boeing exec,” Greenwire, May 29, 2009. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/gwire/2009/05/29/29greenwire-plant-derived-fuels-could-be-certified-for-fli-24118.html
p. 269 Boeing Aircraft is making progress in the development
Michael Burnham, “Energy Guru Lovins Sheds Management Duties to Plot 'Oil Endgame',” Greenwire, December 4, 2006. Available at http://www.rmi.org/images/other/Energy/E06-09_EnergyGuruLovins.pdf
p. 271 Energy Efficiency Depends Upon Leadership and Vision [Sidebar]
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