“Modern agriculture is one of the largest sources of global warming pollution.”

Living Systems

Chapter Ten

Soil

p. 198 between three and four-and-a-half times as much carbon
Rattan Lal, “Carbon Sequestration,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 363 (2008): 815-830.

Rattan Lal, et al., “Soil Carbon Sequestration Impacts on Global Climate Change and Food Security,” Science 304 (2004): 1623-1627.
p. 198 humus in healthy soils is made up, on average, of 58 percent carbon
Rattan Lal, “Soil Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change,” Geoderma 123 (2004): 1-22.
p. 198 has already exceeded the magnitude of losses in the United States 80 years ago
Rattan Lal, interview with author, July 2, 2009.
p. 199 Carbon in Our Soil [Graphic]
Alan Sundermeier, Randall Reeder, and Rattan Lal, “Soil Carbon Sequestration—Fundamentals,” Extension FactSheet, The Ohio State University. Available at http://ohioline.osu.edu/aex-fact/0510.html
p. 200 The Agricultural Revolution began soon after... turns over the soil as it is broken
David R. Huggins and John P. Reganold, “No-Till: The Quiet Revolution,” Scientific American, July 2008.

Rattan Lal, Donald Reicosky, and Jonathan Hanson, “Evolution of the Plow over 10,000 Years and the Rationale for No-Till Farming,” Soil and Tillage Research 93, no. 1 (March 2007): 1-12.
p. 200 In 1837, a blacksmith in the American Midwest, John Deere, developed and marketed
David R. Huggins and John P. Reganold, “No-Till: The Quiet Revolution,” Scientific American, July 2008.
p. 203 the carbon content of U.S. soil decreased by more than 50 percent
Charles W. Rice, Sequestration of Atmospheric CO2 into Soils: How and Why (K-State Research and Extension), last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://soilcarboncenter.k-state.edu/docs/C%20sequestration%20Handout.pdf
p. 203 the publication in 1943 of Plowman's Folly by Edward Faulkner
David R. Huggins and John P. Reganold, “No-Till: The Quiet Revolution,” Scientific American, July 2008.

Rattan Lal, Donald Reicosky, and Jonathan Hanson, “Evolution of the Plow over 10,000 Years and the Rationale for No-Till Farming,” Soil and Tillage Research 93, no. 1 (March 2007): 1-12.
p. 203 each pound causes six pounds of carbon (22 pounds of CO2) to be released
Rattan Lal, interview with author, July 2, 2009.
p. 203 of the 3.75 billion acres under cultivation in the world today
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, World Agriculture: Towards 2015/2030: Summary Report (Rome, FAO, 2002): 40. Available at ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/004/y3557e/y3557e.pdf

David R. Huggins and John P. Reganold, “No-Till: The Quiet Revolution,” Scientific American, July 2008.
p. 203 many African farmers are granted land tenure only one year at a time
Rattan Lal, interview with author, July 2, 2009.
p. 203 some scientists calculate that it was not until the 1970s that fossil fuel burning
Ian R. Swingland (ed.), Capturing Carbon & Conserving Biodiversity: The Market Approach (London: Earthscan Publications Ltd, 2002): 26.
p. 203 Rattan Lal... estimates that during the last 10,000 years, roughly 470 gigatonnes of carbon... compared with changes in land use
Rattan Lal, et al., “Soil Carbon Sequestration Impacts on Global Climate Change and Food Security,” Science 304 (2004): 1623-1627.
p. 204 Charlotte Streck... said recently
Charlotte Streck, “Protecting and Restoring Soils as Essential Part of Climate Change Policy” (Solutions Summit, New York, January 12, 2009).
p. 204 Dr. William H. Schlesinger... has calculated that approximately
William Schlesinger and Jeffrey A. Andrews, “Soil respiration and the global carbon cycle,” Biogeochemistry 48, no. 1 (January 1, 2000): 7-20.
p. 204 indicates that agricultural land use contributes 12 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions
P. Smith, D. Martino, Z. Cai, D. Gwary, H. Janzen, P. Kumar, B. McCarl, S. Ogle, F. O'Mara, C. Rice, B. Scholes, O. Sirotenko, “2007: Agriculture,” Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, 2007): 499. Availabe at http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg3/ar4-wg3-chapter8.pdf
p. 204 U.S. agriculture contributes nearly 20 percent of US CO2 emissions
Tim J. LaSalle, Regenerative Organic Farming: A Solution to Global Warming (Rodale Institute, July 30, 2008): 1. Available at http://www.rodaleinstitute.org/files/Rodale_Research_Paper-07_30_08.pdf
p. 204 Grasslands are particularly effective in sequestering carbon
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Carbon Sequestration in Dryland Soils (Rome, FAO, 2004). Available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y5738e/y5738e00.HTM
p. 204 Hans van Ginkel... said
Glenn McKenzie, “African Soil May Be Own Worst Enemy,” Associated Press, October 16, 1999. Available at http://forests.org/archive/africa/afsickea.htm
p. 204 According to Lal, throughout sub-Saharan Africa
Rattan Lal, “Global Potential of Soil Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate the Greenhouse Effect,” Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 22, no. 2 (2003): 151-184.

Rattan Lal, interview with author, July 2, 2009.

Note:
These two quotes should be separated, as they did not appear in the same source. The first quote came from an article in Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences and the second one came from the author's interview of Rattan Lal.
p. 206 Streck pointed out recently
Charlotte Streck, “Protecting and Restoring Soils as Essential Part of Climate Change Policy” (Solutions Summit, New York, January 12, 2009).
p. 206 The largest amount of carbon presently sequestered in soils is in wetlands
A. Fischlin, G.F. Midgley, J.T. Price, R. Leemans, B. Gopal, C. Turley, M.D.A. Rounsevell, O.P. Dube, J. Tarazona, and A.A. Velichko, “2007: Ecosystems, their properties, goods, and services,” Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007): 214. Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_wg2_report_impacts_adaptation_and_vulnerability.htm

Note:
According to the IPCC, the largest amount of carbon sequestered in soils is in the frozen tundra. The wetlands contain the third largest amount of carbon, behind tropical forests.
p. 206 Thomas Lovejoy... has proposed that exposed peatlands
Thomas Lovejoy, interview with author, 2009.
p. 206 The second-largest amount of carbon contained in soils is found
A. Fischlin, G.F. Midgley, J.T. Price, R. Leemans, B. Gopal, C. Turley, M.D.A. Rounsevell, O.P. Dube, J. Tarazona, and A.A. Velichko, “2007: Ecosystems, their properties, goods, and services,” Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007): 214. Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_wg2_report_impacts_adaptation_and_vulnerability.htm

Note:
According to the IPCC, the largest amount of carbon sequestered in soils is in the frozen tundra. The wetlands contain the third largest amount of carbon, behind tropical forests.
p. 206 If global warming continues to thaw these frozen soils of the Far North
Seth Borenstein, “Study Says Methane a New Climate Threat,” Associated Press, September 6, 2006. Available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/09/06/AR2006090601024.html
p. 208 the business-as-usual scenario: 11°F in this century
International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2008 (OECD/IEA 2008): 382.
p. 208 could suffer a decline in agricultural productivity of 30 to 40 percent
William R. Cline, Global Warming and Agriculture: Impact Estimates by
Country
(2007): 49-50, 69, 72, 77. Available at http://www.piie.com/publications/chapters_preview/4037/05iie4037.pdf
p. 208 Sudan faces a decline of as much as 50 percent... projected to decline by a third
William R. Cline, Global Warming and Agriculture: Impact Estimates by
Country
(2007): 69-71. Available at http://www.piie.com/publications/chapters_preview/4037/05iie4037.pdf
p. 208 Dr. Jerry L. Hatfield... testified this year that
Jerry L. Hatfield, “Testimony of Dr. Jerry L. Hatfield, Director, National Soil Tilth Laboratory‚ Ames, Iowa, Before the House Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming,” June 18, 2009. Available at http://globalwarming.house.gov/files/HRG/061809agriculture/HatfieldTestimony.pdf
p. 208 Arthur Yap... told me last year that
Arthur Yap, conversation with author, 2008.
p. 209 The IPCC has warned that changes in the availability of water
W.E. Easterling, P.K. Aggarwal, P. Batima, K.M. Brander, L. Erda, S.M. Howden, A. Kirilenko, J. Morton, J.-F. Soussana, J. Schmidhuber, and F.N. Tubiello, “2007: Food, fibre and forest products,” Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge, IPCC, 2007): 280. Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_wg2_report_impacts_adaptation_and_vulnerability.htm
p. 209 approximately 95 percent of U.S. agriculture depends solely on rain
USDA, “Acres of Irrigated Land as Percent of Land in Farms Acreage: 2007,” The Census of Agriculture (updated September 2009). Available at http://www.agcensus.usda.gov/Publications/2007/Online_Highlights/Ag_Atlas_Maps/Farms/Land_in_Farms_and_Land_Use/07-M082-RGBChor-largetext.pdf
p. 209 According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency
Federal Emergency Management Agency, National Mitigation Strategy: Partnerships for Building Safer Communities (1995).
p. 209 the rapid loss of snowpack... continued global warming
Jim Tankersley, “California farms, vineyards in peril from warming, U.S. energy secretary warns,” The Los Angeles Times, February 4, 2009. Available at http://articles.latimes.com/2009/feb/04/local/me-warming4
p. 209 The worst impacts in the United States are projected to occur...rainfall in the region
William R. Cline, Global Warming and Agriculture: Impact Estimates by Country (2007): 71. Available at http://www.piie.com/publications/chapters_preview/4037/05iie4037.pdf
p. 209 Some plants are especially vulnerable to prolonged periods of higher nighttime temperatures
Peng, Shaobing, Jianliang Huang, John E. Sheehy, Rebecca C. Laza, Romeo M. Visperas, Xuhua Zhong, Grace S. Centeno, Gurdev S. Khush, and Kenneth G. Cassman, "Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming," PNAS 101, no. 27 (July 6, 2004): 9971-9975.
p. 209 In 2009, the American West suffered an unusual increase in dust storms
“Dust Storms Speed Snowmelt in Colorado,” Los Angeles Times, May 24, 2009. Available at http://articles.latimes.com/2009/may/24/nation/na-pink-snow24
p. 209 have been responsible already for livestock deaths
“Over 2,000 cattle die in Neb. heat wave,” Associated Press, June 30, 2009. Available at http://www.usatoday.com/weather/news/extremes/2009-06-30-nebraska-cattle-deaths_N.htm
p. 209 Rattan Lal includes in his “Laws of Sustainable Soil Management”
Rattan Lal, “Laws of sustainable soil management,” Agronomy for Sustainable Development 29 (2009): 7-9.
p. 209 The threat to agriculture from insect infestations is also projected to increase
S.P. Wani, Johan Rockstrom, and T. Oweis, Refined Agriculture: Unlocking the Potential (2009): 77-8.
p. 210 higher CO2 levels stimulate the growth of weeds... more resistant to herbicides
Mary Woodsen, “Weeds of the globally warmed future,” Rodale Institute, June 15, 2007. Available at http://www.rodaleinstitute.org/nf/future_weeds
p. 210 According to the United States Global Change Research Program
“Agriculture,” United States Global Change Research Program. Available at http://www.globalchange.gov/publications/reports/scientific-assessments/us-impacts/climate-change-impacts-by-sector/agriculture
p. 210 northward expansion of the range of some weeds
Lewis H. Ziska, “Climate Change Impacts on Weeds,” Climate Change and Agriculture. Available at http://www.climateandfarming.org/pdfs/FactSheets/III.1Weeds.pdf
p. 210 Increased wildfires and strong wind events... low-level ozone... CO2 enrichment
Richard L. Lindroth and James G. Bockheim, “Interacting CO2 and O3 effects on litter production, chemistry, and decomposition in an aggrading northern forest ecosystem,” DOE Final Technical Report, DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-98ER62680. Available at http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/827416-ckk3OM/webviewable/827416.pdf
p. 210 Carbon in the Ecosystem [Graphic]
A. Fischlin, G.F. Midgley, J.T. Price, R. Leemans, B. Gopal, C. Turley, M.D.A. Rounsevell, O.P. Dube, J. Tarazona, and A.A. Velichko, “2007: Ecosystems, their properties, goods, and services,” Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007): 214. Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_wg2_report_impacts_adaptation_and_vulnerability.htm
p. 211 the unnatural force-feeding of corn to cattle... more acidic
Pollan, Michael, The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York, Penguin, 2006): 78.
p. 211 Before the discovery in Germany in 1909 of a workable method to create synthetic ammonia
Pollan, Michael, The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York, Penguin, 2006): 42.
p. 211 the reliance on synthetic nitrogen fertilizers grew quickly
Pollan, Michael, The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York, Penguin, 2006): 42-4.
p. 212 As Michael Pollan skillfully describes in The Omnivore's Dilemma... wasteful and harmful practices
Pollan, Michael, “Chapter Two: The Farm,” The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York, Penguin, 2006).
p. 212 now uses 10 calories of energy from fossil fuels to produce one calorie in food
Pollan, Michael, The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York, Penguin, 2006): 88.
p. 212 Every ton of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer requires the burning of enough natural gas to release
Rattan Lal, interview with author, July 2, 2009.
p. 212 every ton consumed by bacteria in the soil causes them to also consume 30 tons of carbon
Rattan Lal, interview with author, July 2, 2009.
p. 212 The number and extent of these dead zones in the ocean are now increasing rapidly
Quirin Schiermeier, “Marine Dead Zones Set to Expand Rapidly,” Nature News, November 14, 2008. Available at http://www.nature.com/news/2008/081114/full/news.2008.1230.html
p. 212 According to Ford B. West
Ford B. West, “Testimony of Ford B. West, President, The Fertilizer Institute, Before the U.S. House Select Committee on Global Warming,” June 18, 2009. Available at http://globalwarming.house.gov/files/HRG/061809agriculture/WestTestimony.pdf
p. 212 Domestic manufacturers supplied 85 percent of nitrogen used by U.S. farmers... is now imported
Ford B. West, “Testimony of Ford B. West, President, The Fertilizer Institute, Before the U.S. House Select Committee on Global Warming,” June 18, 2009. Available at http://globalwarming.house.gov/files/HRG/061809agriculture/WestTestimony.pdf
p. 215 the carbon content of degraded cropland soils is... five to six tons in Asia
P.M. Vitousek, R. Naylor, T. Crews, M.B. David, L.E. Drinkwater, E. Holland, P.J. Johnes, et al., “Nutrient Imbalances in Agricultural Development,” Science 324 (June 19, 2009): 1519-1520.

Rattan Lal, interview with author, July 2, 2009.
p. 215 it takes more than seven pounds of plant protein to produce one pound of beef
Nathan Fiala, “The Greenhouse Hamburger,” Scientific American 300, no. 2 (February 2009). Available at http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=the-greenhouse-hamburger
p. 215 and more than 6,000 gallons of water
David Pimentel and Marcia Pimentel, Food, Energy, and Society (Boca Raton, CRC Press, 2008): 191.
p. 215 Science Daily recently reported a study showing that 72 percent of all methane emissions
“Way to Cut Cattle Methane, Threat to Environment, By 25 Percent,” Science Daily, May 9, 2009. Available at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/05/090507145752.htm
p. 215 Some researchers are now discovering
Leslie Kaufman, “Greening the Herds: A New Diet to Cap Gas,” The New York Times, June 4, 2009. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/05/us/05cows.html?_r=1
p. 215 The per capita consumption of meat in developed countries
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, “Consumption: Livestock and Fish Primary Equivalent,” FAOSTAT, last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://faostat.fao.org/site/610/default.aspx#ancor
p. 215 Rattan Lal has said that better soil management has the potential
Rattan Lal, et al., “Soil Carbon Sequestration Impacts on Global Climate Change and Food Security,” Science 304 (2004): 1623-1627.
p. 215 LaSalle points out that
Tim J. LaSalle, Regenerative Organic Farming: A Solution to Global Warming (Rodale Institute, July 30, 2008): 3. Available at http://www.rodaleinstitute.org/files/Rodale_Research_Paper-07_30_08.pdf
p. 216 “Successful implementation of organic regenerative farming practices... food, feed, and fiber.”
Tim J. LaSalle, Regenerative Organic Farming: A Solution to Global Warming (Rodale Institute, July 30, 2008): 8. Available at http://www.rodaleinstitute.org/files/Rodale_Research_Paper-07_30_08.pdf
p. 216 if practiced on all of the planet's tillable acres
Tim J. LaSalle, Regenerative Organic Farming: A Solution to Global Warming (Rodale Institute, July 30, 2008): 1. Available at http://www.rodaleinstitute.org/files/Rodale_Research_Paper-07_30_08.pdf
p. 216 William Schlesinger, believes that
William Schlesinger, “Working Paper of William H. Schlesinger prepared for The Gore Climate Summit (Solutions Summit, New York, January 12, 2009).
p. 216 that transforms the biomass into what is more than 80 percent pure carbon
“What is EternaGreen BioChar?,” EternaGreen, last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.eternagreen.com/biochar
p. 216 can also be designed to produce gas or liquid fuel
“Simpler Way to Counter Global Warming Explained: Lock Up Carbon in Soil and Use Bioenergy Exhaust Gases for Energy,” Science Daily, May 12, 2007. Available at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/05/070511211255.htm
p. 216 a new design for cookstoves for those in less-developed countries
Rattan Lal, interview with author, July 2, 2009.
p. 216 David Shearer, a biochar entrepreneur... says
David Shearer (Solutions Summit, New York, April 30, 2008).
p. 219 soil scientists discovered that Amazonian Indians
Kurt Kleiner, “The Bright Prospect of Biochar,” Nature Reports Climate Change, May 21, 2009. Available at http://www.nature.com/climate/2009/0906/full/climate.2009.48.html
p. 219 Johannes Lehmann, a soil scientist at Cornell University, said
Kurt Kleiner, “The Bright Prospect of Biochar,” Nature Reports Climate Change, May 21, 2009. Available at http://www.nature.com/climate/2009/0906/full/climate.2009.48.html
p. 219 Lovelock... said in 2009
Gaia Vince, “One last change to save mankind,” New Scientist, January 23, 2009. Available at http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20126921.500-one-last-chance-to-save-mankind.html?full=true
p. 219 In an open letter in 2008, Flannery wrote
Tim Flannery, “An Open Letter on Biochar,” International Biochar Initiative, August 2008. Available at http://www.biochar-international.org/timflannery
p. 220 biomass sources like manure, switchgrass, algae, and rice husks
“Biochar Technology,” International Biochar Initiative, last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.biochar-international.org/technology
p. 220 at least one company, Mantria Industries in Dunlap, Tennessee
“Mantria Industries Opens World's Largest BioChar Plant,” press release, August 3, 2009. Available at http://www.businesswire.com/portal/site/google/?ndmViewId=news_view&newsId=20090803005098&newsLang=en
p. 220 Rhizobium is a highly specialized bacteria that pulls carbon
E.M. Lodwig, A.H.F. Hosie, A. Bourd√©s, K. Findlay, D. Allaway, R. Karunakaran, J.A. Downie, and P.S. Poole, “Amino-acid cycling drives nitrogen fixation in the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis,” Nature 422 (April 17, 2003): 722-726. Available at http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v422/n6933/abs/nature01527.html
p. 220 Some fungi specialists, including Paul Stamets of Fungi Perfecti, have proposed
Linda Baker, “How Mushrooms Will Save the World,” Salon, November 25, 2002. Available at http://dir.salon.com/story/tech/feature/2002/11/25/mushrooms/index.html
p. 220 Mycorrhizal fungi have developed... delicate mycorrhizal networks
Suzanne W. Simard, David A. Perry, Melanie D. Jones, David D. Myrold, Daniel M. Durall, and Randy Molina, “Net transfer of carbon between ectomycorrhizal tree species in the field,” Nature 388 (August 7, 1997): 579-582. Available at http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v388/n6642/full/388579a0.html

Paul Stamets, interview with author, July 1, 2009.

Tim J. LaSalle, Regenerative Organic Farming: A Solution to Global Warming (Rodale Institute, July 30, 2008): 2-3. Available at http://www.rodaleinstitute.org/files/Rodale_Research_Paper-07_30_08.pdf
p. 222 the largest emissions trading system... bans both forests and soil carbon
“European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS),” Carbon Offset Research & Education (Stockholm Environment Institute), last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.CO2offsetresearch.org/policy/EUETS.html
p. 222 Only the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX) recognizes
“Chicago Climate Exchange,” Carbon Offset Research & Education (Stockholm Environment Institute), last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.CO2offsetresearch.org/policy/CCX.html
p. 222 In 2009, with seed money from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation... Hartemink said
Paul Voosen, “Bold Soil-Mapping Venture Seen as Crucial to Efforts on Climate, Agriculture,” Greenwire, August 7, 2009. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/gwire/2009/08/07/07greenwire-bold-soil-mapping-venture-seen-as-crucial-to-e-74103.html
p. 222 The Brookhaven National Laboratory has innovated the use of a technology
Lucian Wielopolski, “Inelastic Neutron Scattering for Assessing Soil Carbon,” Encyclopedia of Soil Science, March 27, 2006. Available at http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a740181088

Rattan Lal, interview with author, July 2, 2009.
p. 222 The Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy
Michael H. Ebinger, M. Lee Norfleet, David D. Breshears, David A. Cremers, Monty J. Ferris, Pat J. Unkefer, Megan S. Lamb, Kelly L. Goddard, and Clifton W. Meyer, “Extending the Applicability of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for Total Soil Carbon Management,” Soil Science Society of America Journal 67 (2003): 1616-1619.