“Human civilization and the earth’s ecological system are colliding, and the climate crisis is the most prominent, destructive, and threatening manifestation of this collision.”

The Crisis

Chapter One

What Goes Up Must Come Down

p. 31 The Niederaussem coal-fired power plant
World Wildlife Fund, Dirty Thirty: Ranking of the most polluting power stations in Europe. (Brussels: WWF European Policy Office, May 2007): 1. Available at http://assets.panda.org/downloads/european_dirty_thirty_may_2007.pdf
p. 32 The biggest global warming cause
D.T. Shindell, G. Faluvegi, D.M. Koch, G.A. Schmidt, N. Unger, and
S.E. Bauer, “Improved attribution of climate forcing to emissions,”
Science 326, no. 5953 (October 30, 2009): 716-718. Available at http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/326/5953/716
p. 32 carbon dioxide... comes primarily from
Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) version 6.0. (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, 2009). Available at http://cait.wri.org
p. 32 the burning of coal, oil, and natural gas is... the most rapidly increasing source
Kevin A. Baumert, Timothy Herzog, and Jonathan Pershing, Navigating the Numbers: Greenhouse Gas Data and International Climate Policy (World Resources Institute, 2005). Available at http://www.wri.org/publication/navigating-the-numbers
p. 32 the next largest source... almost a quarter of the total
K.L. Denman, G. Brasseur, A. Chidthaisong, P. Ciais, P.M. Cox, R.E. Dickinson, D. Hauglustaine, et al., “2007: Couplings Between Changes in the Climate System and Biogeochemistry,” Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA): 512. Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_wg1_report_the_physical_science_basis.htm
p. 34 The best scientists say... 350 parts per million
Bill McKibben, “The Science of 350, the Most Important Number on the Planet,” TreeHugger.com, October 6, 2009. Available at http://www.treehugger.com/files/2009/10/the-science-of-350-the-most-important-number.php
p. 34 Methane... has a much stronger greenhouse effect
P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D.W. Fahey, J. Haywood, et al., “2007: Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing,” Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.)] (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA): 212. Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_wg1_report_the_physical_science_basis.htm
p. 34 Methane... comes from sources such as
Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) version 6.0. (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, 2009). Available at http://cait.wri.org
p. 34 Black-carbon pollution... is produced by burning
V. Ramanathan, “Role of Black Carbon on Global and Regional Climate Change,” EPA Black Carbon and Global Warming: Hearing Before the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, 110th Cong., 1st sess., October 18, 2007. Available at http://oversight.house.gov/documents/20071018110734.pdf
p. 34 thousands of times more powerful
P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D.W. Fahey, J. Haywood, et al., “2007: Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing,” Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.)] (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA): 212. Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_wg1_report_the_physical_science_basis.htm
p. 34 largest source of nitrous oxide
Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) version 6.0. (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, 2009). Available at http://cait.wri.org
p. 36 predominantly deforestation, the burning of trees and vegetation
K.L. Denman, G. Brasseur, A. Chidthaisong, P. Ciais, P.M. Cox, R.E. Dickinson, D. Hauglustaine, et al., “2007: Couplings Between Changes in the Climate System and Biogeochemistry,” Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA): 512. Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_wg1_report_the_physical_science_basis.htm
p. 36 majority of forest burning is in relatively poorer developing countries
Matthew C. Hansen, Stephen V. Stehman, Peter V. Potapov, Thomas R. Loveland, John R. G. Townshend, Ruth S. DeFries, Kyle W. Pittman, et al., “Humid tropical forest clearing from 2000 to 2005 quantified by using multitemporal and multiresolution remotely sensed data,” PNAS 105, no. 27 (2008): 9439-9444.
p. 36 about half of the man-made CO2 would fall out... within 30 years
Drew Shindell, phone interview with author, September 1, 2009.
p. 36 as much as 20 percent... will remain there 1,000 years from now
Drew Shindell, phone interview with author, September 1, 2009.
p. 36 we're putting 90 million tons of CO2... every single day
Drew Shindell, phone interview with author, September 1, 2009.
p. 36 methane is more than 20 times as potent as CO2
P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D.W. Fahey, J. Haywood, et al., “2007: Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing,” Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.)] (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA): 212. Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_wg1_report_the_physical_science_basis.htm
p. 36 over a 20-year period, it is about 75 times as potent
P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D.W. Fahey, J. Haywood, et al., “2007: Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing,” Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.)] (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA): 212. Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_wg1_report_the_physical_science_basis.htm
p. 37 A Toyota Prius running on gasoline made from tar sands
National Energy Technology Laboratory, Development of Baseline Data and Analysis of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Petroleum-Based Fuels (November 26, 2008): 12. Available at http://www.netl.doe.gov/energy-analyses/pubs/NETL%20LCA%20Petroleum-Based%20Fuels%20Nov%202008.pdf

U.S. Department of Energy, “2009 Toyota Prius,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/2008car1tablef.jsp?id=25987

U.S. Department of Energy, “2009 Hummer H3 4WD,” last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/2008car1tablef.jsp?id=25677

Note:
Tables 2-4 and 2-5 on page 12 of the NETL report show that CO2 emissions from “extraction and processing” of Canadian oil sands are 122kg/bbl, compared to 24.5 kgCO2e/bbl for U.S. crude oil. This is a ratio of roughly five to one. The DOE's fuel economy database shows that the Toyota Prius has a combined city/highway rating of 46 MPG, compared to 16 MPG from the Hummer H3 4WD – a ratio of roughly three to one. Thus, the greater CO2 emissions resulting from the extraction and processing of oil from tar sands overwhelm the fuel economy benefits of a Prius.
p. 38 About half of our diet-related greenhouse gas emissions come from the production of meat
Environmental Protection Agency, 2009 U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory Project, April 2009. Available at http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/usinventoryreport.html
p. 39 Methane interacts... break it down over a 10- to 12-year period
Drew Shindell, phone interview with author, September 1, 2009.
p. 39 contributed about two thirds as much
D.T. Shindell, G. Faluvegi, D.M. Koch, G.A. Schmidt, N. Unger, and
S.E. Bauer, “Improved attribution of climate forcing to emissions,”
Science 326, no. 5953 (October 30, 2009): 716-718. Available at http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/326/5953/716
p. 39 More than half of human-caused methane releases occur in agriculture
Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) version 6.0. (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, 2009). Available at http://cait.wri.org
p. 39 almost a quarter of the methane releases come from leaks and evaporation
Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) version 6.0. (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, 2009). Available at http://cait.wri.org
p. 39 continued warming of the frozen permafrost... is beginning to release
K.L. Denman, G. Brasseur, A. Chidthaisong, P. Ciais, P.M. Cox, R.E. Dickinson, D. Hauglustaine, et al., “2007: Couplings Between Changes in the Climate System and Biogeochemistry,” Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA): 543. Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_wg1_report_the_physical_science_basis.htm
p. 41 black carbon absorbs heat from incoming sunlight
V. Ramanathan, “Role of Black Carbon on Global and Regional Climate Change,” EPA Black Carbon and Global Warming: Hearing Before the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, 110th Cong., 1st sess., October 18, 2007. Available at http://oversight.house.gov/documents/20071018110734.pdf
p. 41 also the shortest lived
V. Ramanathan and G. Carmichael, “Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon,” Nature Geoscience 1, no. 4 (2008): 221-227. Available at http://www-ramanathan.ucsd.edu/publications/Ram_Carmichael-NatGeo1-221.pdf
p. 41 largest source of black carbon is the burning of biomass
Tami C. Bond, “Testimony for the Hearing on Black Carbon and Climate Change,” EPA Black Carbon and Global Warming: Hearing Before the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, 110th Cong., 1st sess., October 18, 2007. Available at http://oversight.house.gov/documents/20071018110647.pdf
p. 41 disproportionately concentrated in three areas
Matthew C. Hansen, Stephen V. Stehman, Peter V. Potapov, Thomas R. Loveland, John R. G. Townshend, Ruth S. DeFries, Kyle W. Pittman, et al., “Humid tropical forest clearing from 2000 to 2005 quantified by using multitemporal and multiresolution remotely sensed data,” PNAS 105, no. 27 (2008): 9439-9444
p. 41 Siberia and Eastern Europe also produce soot
V. Ramanathan and G. Carmichael, “Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon,” Nature Geoscience 1, no. 4 (2008): 221-227. Available at http://www-ramanathan.ucsd.edu/publications/Ram_Carmichael-NatGeo1-221.pdf

Ashley Pettus, Agricultural Fires and Arctic Climate Change: A Special CATF Report (Boston: Clean Air Task Force, May 2009). Available at http://www.catf.us/publications/view/99
p. 41 Cleaning the air after the great smog of 1952 [Sidebar]
Michelle L. Bell, Devra L. Davis, Tony Fletcher, “A Retrospective Assessment of Mortality from the London Smog Episode of 1952: The Role of Influenza and Pollution,” Environmental Health Perspectives 112, no. 1, (2004).

In 1956, the British Parliament introduced the Clean Air Act “50 Years On: The Struggle for Air Quality in London Since the Great Smog of December 1952,” Greater London Authority, 1952. Available at http://www.london.gov.uk/mayor/environment/air_quality/docs/50_years_on.pdf
p. 42 one estimate is that black carbon is responsible for... 1°C (1.8°F) of the 2.5°C (4.5°F) of warming
V. Ramanathan and G. Carmichael, “Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon,” Nature Geoscience 1, no. 4 (2008): 221-227. Available at http://www-ramanathan.ucsd.edu/publications/Ram_Carmichael-NatGeo1-221.pdf

V. Ramanathan, phone interview with author, April 18, 2009.
p. 42 as much as 20 percent of the black carbon...
V. Ramanathan and G. Carmichael, “Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon,” Nature Geoscience 1, no. 4 (2008): 221-227. Available at http://www-ramanathan.ucsd.edu/publications/Ram_Carmichael-NatGeo1-221.pdf

Tami C. Bond, “Testimony for the Hearing on Black Carbon and Climate Change,” EPA Black Carbon and Global Warming: Hearing Before the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, 110th Cong., 1st sess., October 18, 2007. Available at http://oversight.house.gov/documents/20071018110647.pdf
p. 42 Indian subcontinent... typically goes without much rain for six months of the year
Navin Singh Khadka, "Uncertainties Surround Future Monsoons," BBC News, July 31, 2009. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8178463.stm
p. 42 air pollution levels are now comparable to those of Los Angeles
V. Ramanathan, phone interview with author, April 18, 2009.
p. 42 75 percent of all Himalayan glaciers less than 15 square kilometers could disappear in as little as 10 years
Elisabeth Rosenthal, “Third-World Stove Soot Is Target in Climate Fight,” The New York Times, April 15, 2009. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/16/science/earth/16degrees.html

Syed Iqbal Hasnain, e-mail message to author, May 1, 2009.
p. 44 half of the drinking water and agricultural water in India and much of China and Indochina
WWF Nepal Program, An Overview of Glaciers, Glacier Retreat, and Subsequent Impact in Nepal, India and China (March 2005). Available at http://assets.panda.org/downloads/himalayaglaciersreport2005.pdf
p. 44 70 percent of the water flowing in the Ganges River
Emily Wax, “A Sacred River Endangered by Global Warming,” Washington Post, June 17, 2007. Available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/06/16/AR2007061600461.html
p. 44 Black carbon is also produced by the burning of agricultural waste
Conrad Schneider, “Policy Options for Reducing Black Carbon,” March 6, 2009. Available at http://www.catf.us/advocacy/legal/legislative/20090305-Carper_BC_Briefing.pdf
p. 44 More than a third of the black carbon... burning of fossil fuels
V. Ramanathan and G. Carmichael, “Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon,” Nature Geoscience 1, no. 4 (2008): 221-227. Available at http://www-ramanathan.ucsd.edu/publications/Ram_Carmichael-NatGeo1-221.pdf

Tami C. Bond, “Testimony for the Hearing on Black Carbon and Climate Change,” EPA Black Carbon and Global Warming: Hearing Before the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, 110th Cong., 1st sess., October 18, 2007. Available at http://oversight.house.gov/documents/20071018110647.pdf
p. 44 devices have recently been introduced... not yet widely used
V. Ramanathan, phone interview with author, April 18, 2009.
p. 44 Most of the global warming... absorption of incoming sunlight
V. Ramanathan, “Role of Black Carbon on Global and Regional Climate Change,” EPA Black Carbon and Global Warming: Hearing Before the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, 110th Cong., 1st sess., October 18, 2007. Available at http://oversight.house.gov/documents/20071018110734.pdf
p. 44 primary component of the large brown clouds
V. Ramanathan, M. Agrawal, H. Akimoto, M. Aufhammer, S. Devotta, L. Emberson, S.I. Hasnain, et al., “Summary", Atmospheric Brown Clouds: Regional Assessment Report with Focus on Asia (Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme, 2008). Available at http://www.unep.org/pdf/ABCSummaryFinal.pdf
p. 44 These clouds... partially mask global warming
V. Ramanathan and G. Carmichael, “Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon,” Nature Geoscience 1, no. 4 (2008): 221-227. Available at http://www-ramanathan.ucsd.edu/publications/Ram_Carmichael-NatGeo1-221.pdf
p. 44 darkens the white reflective surface... causing more rapid melting
V. Ramanathan and G. Carmichael, “Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon,” Nature Geoscience 1, no. 4 (2008): 221-227. Available at http://www-ramanathan.ucsd.edu/publications/Ram_Carmichael-NatGeo1-221.pdf
p. 44 led some scientists to suggest painting millions of roofs white
Felicity Barringer, “White Roofs Catch On as Energy Cost Cutters,” The New York Times, July 29, 2009. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/30/science/earth/30degrees.html?_r=1
p. 45 Albedo: Measuring the Sun's Reflection [Graphic]
Mark Flanner, “Drivers of snow reflectance variability and associated climate feedback,” National Center for Atmospheric Research. Available at http://www.asp.ucar.edu/spotlight/mark_flanner.php

C. Donald Ahrens, Meteorology Today, Eighth Edition, Brooks Cole, 2006.

Arthur H . Rosenfeld, Joseph J. Romm, Hashem Akbari, and Alan C. Lloyd, “Painting the Town White—and Green,” MIT's Technology Review, February/March 1997, republished at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Heat Island Group, last accessed November 3, 2009. Available at http://eetd.lbl.gov/HeatIsland/PUBS/PAINTING
p. 46 this category of global warming pollution is now slowly but steadily declining
K.L. Denman, G. Brasseur, A. Chidthaisong, P. Ciais, P.M. Cox, R.E. Dickinson, D. Hauglustaine, et al., “2007: Couplings Between Changes in the Climate System and Biogeochemistry,” Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA): 512. Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_wg1_report_the_physical_science_basis.htm
p. 46 still represents roughly 13 percent of the total problem
P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D.W. Fahey, J. Haywood, et al., “2007: Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing,” Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.)] (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA): 204. Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_wg1_report_the_physical_science_basis.htm

Note:
Thirteen percent is based on a calculation of Table 2.12, which shows that halocarbons account for 0.34 of the 2.63 Wm-2 of radiative forcing from long-lived greenhouse gases. This figure is distinct from the figure in the graphic on page 47, “The Sources of Global Warming,” which shows that halocarbons are responsible for 7.8% of global warming. While 13% applies to just greenhouse gases, the 7.8% figure takes into account warming from all sources – greenhouse gases, black carbon, carbon monoxide and VOCs.
p. 46 many scientists are critical... the phaseout of methyl bromide be delayed indefinitely
Quirin Schiermeier, “Fixing the Sky,” Nature 460, no. 3 (August 2009): 792-795.
p. 46 growing concern among scientists that some of the chemicals... should also be controlled
Guus J.M. Velders, David W. Fahey, John S. Daniel, Mark McFarland, and Stephen O. Andersen, “The large contribution of projected HFC emissions to future climate forcing,” PNAS 106, no. 27 (2009): 10949-10954. Available at http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2009/06/19/0902817106.abstract
p. 47 Some halocarbons stay in the atmosphere for thousands of years
P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D.W. Fahey, J. Haywood, et al., “2007: Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing,” Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.)] (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA): 212. Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_wg1_report_the_physical_science_basis.htm
p. 47 carbon tetrafluoride... an incredible 50,000 years
P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D.W. Fahey, J. Haywood, et al., “2007: Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing,” Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.)] (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA): 212. Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_wg1_report_the_physical_science_basis.htm
p. 47 may take another 50 to 100 years before the stratospheric ozone layer is fully healed
Quirin Schiermeier, “Fixing the Sky,” Nature 460, no. 3 (August 2009): 792-795.
p. 47 the one thing that could reverse this trend is failure to solve global warming
Quirin Schiermeier, “Fixing the Sky,” Nature 460, no. 3 (August 2009): 792-795.
p. 47 Carbon monoxide is mostly produced by cars... burning of biomass
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Carbon Monoxide,” Air Emission Sources. Available at http://www.epa.gov/air/emissions/co.htm

J.G.J. Olivier, J.A. Van Aardenne, F. Dentener, L. Ganzeveld, and J.A.H.W. Peters, “Recent trends in global greenhouse gas emissions: regional trends and spatial distribution of key sources,” Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (NCGG-4) (Rotterdam: Millpress, 2005). Available at: http://www.mnp.nl/edgar/model/v32ft2000edgar/edgarv32ft-prec/edgv32ft-co.jsp
p. 47 VOCs are produced mainly in industrial processes... cars and trucks
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Volatile Organic Compounds,” Air Emission Sources. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/air/emissions/voc.htm

J.G.J. Olivier, J.A. Van Aardenne, F. Dentener, L. Ganzeveld, and J.A.H.W. Peters, “Recent trends in global greenhouse gas emissions: regional trends and spatial distribution of key sources,” Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (NCGG-4) (Rotterdam: Millpress, 2005). Available at http://www.mnp.nl/edgar/model/v32ft2000edgar/edgarv32ft-prec/edgv32ft-nmvoc.jsp
p. 47 lead to the production of low-level ozone... potent greenhouse gas
K.L. Denman, G. Brasseur, A. Chidthaisong, P. Ciais, P.M. Cox, R.E. Dickinson, D. Hauglustaine, et al., “2007: Couplings Between Changes in the Climate System and Biogeochemistry,” Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA): 547-550. Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_wg1_report_the_physical_science_basis.htm
p. 47 interact with other chemicals in the atmosphere... contribute to global warming
Drew Shindell, interview with author, September 1, 2009.
p. 47 The Sources of Global Warming [Graphic]
D.T. Shindell, G. Faluvegi, D.M. Koch, G.A. Schmidt, N. Unger, and S.E. Bauer, “Improved attribution of climate forcing to emissions,” Science 326, no. 5953 (October 30, 2009): 716-718. Available at http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/326/5953/716

Drew Shindell, interview with author, September 1, 2009.
p. 48 The majority of nitrous-oxide emissions come from agricultural practices
Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) version 6.0. (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, 2009). Available at http://cait.wri.org
p. 49 net cooling effect on their own... affect problem-solving strategies
P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D.W. Fahey, J. Haywood, et al., “2007: Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing,” Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and, H.L. Miller (eds.)] (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA): 205-206. Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_wg1_report_the_physical_science_basis.htm
p. 49 vast majority of nitrous-oxide emissions... comes from agricultural practices
Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) version 6.0. (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, 2009). Available at http://cait.wri.org
p. 49 two German chemists discovered a new process
Michael Pollan, The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006): 42-44.
p. 49 we have doubled the amount of available nitrogen in the environment
World Resources Institute, “Nutrient overload: Unbalancing the global nitrogen cycle,” World Resources 1998-99 (1998). Available at http://www.wri.org/publication/content/8398
p. 49 stimulates the rapid and unsustainable growth of algae blooms
World Resources Institute, “Sources of the nitrogen glut,” World Resources 1998-99 (1998). Available at http://www.wri.org/publication/content/8399
p. 49 synthetic ammonia fertilizers require large amounts of fossil fuel
Michael Pollan, The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006): 44-45.
p. 49 smaller amounts of nitrous oxide are also emitted
Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) version 6.0. (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, 2009). Available at http://cait.wri.org
p. 49 water vapor traps more heat than CO2
Gavin Schmidt, “Water vapour: feedback or forcing?” Real Climate, April 6, 2005. Available at http://www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2005/04/water-vapour-feedback-or-forcing/
p. 49 amount of water vapor in the air is responsive to its temperature
Gavin Schmidt, “Water vapour: feedback or forcing?” Real Climate, April 6, 2005. Available at http://www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2005/04/water-vapour-feedback-or-forcing/